Luca's meaningless thoughts  


by Leandro Lucarella on 2011- 06- 16 13:19 (updated on 2011- 06- 16 13:19)
tagged berlin, cdgc, d, dgc, en, self, sociomantic labs, work - with 7 comment(s)

I'm moving to Berlin on October to work at Sociomantic Labs. They use D + Tango with the GC I did as my thesis so I probably get the chance to improve the GC further!

Jetz, soll ich Deutsch lernen!

CDGC merged into Tango

by Leandro Lucarella on 2011- 01- 28 19:49 (updated on 2011- 01- 28 19:49)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, en, gc, merge, patch, tango - with 1 comment(s)

Yai! Finally my CDGC patches has been applied to Tango [1] [2] [3]. CDGC will not be the default Tango GC for now, because it needs some real testing first (and fixing a race when using weak references). So, please, please, do try it, is as simple as compiling from the sources adding a new option to bob: -g=cdgc and then manually installing Tango.

Please, don't forget to report any bugs or problems.



by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 12- 08 18:33 (updated on 2010- 12- 08 18:33)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, en, engineer, gc, self - with 5 comment(s)

Finally, I defended my thesis last Monday and now I'm officially (well, not really, the diploma takes about a year to be emitted) an Ingeniero en Informática (something like a Informatics Engineer). I hope I can get some free time now to polish the rough edges of the collector (fix the weakrefs for example) so it can be finally merged into Tango.

DMDFE copyright assigned to the FSF?

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 11- 10 20:07 (updated on 2010- 11- 10 20:07)
tagged copyright, d, dmd, dmdfe, en, floss, fsf, gdc, walter bright - with 0 comment(s)

It looks like Walter is willing to (finally) give the copyright assignment of the DMD front-end to the FSF, so GDC can have a chance at being merged to the official GCC distribution.

Let's see how this turns out...

CDGC experimental branch in Druntime

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 11- 09 15:51 (updated on 2010- 11- 09 15:51)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, druntime, en, sean kelly - with 0 comment(s)

Sean Kelly just created a new experimental branch in Druntime with CDGC as the GC for D2. The new branch is completely untested though, so only people wanting to help testing should try it out (which will be very appreciated).

CDGC Tango integration

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 10- 20 23:34 (updated on 2010- 10- 20 23:34)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, en, integration, patch, tango - with 0 comment(s)

I've posted a small set of patches to integrate CDGC into Tango. If you want to try them out, just follow the simple 3 steps described in the ticket.

Please, let me know how it went if you do.


by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 10- 10 16:28 (updated on 2010- 10- 10 16:28)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, dmd, en, gc, howto, makefile, patch, tango - with 0 comment(s)

Here are some details on how to try CDGC, as it needs a very particular setup, specially due to DMD not having precise heap scanning integrated yet.

Here are the steps (in some kind of literate scripting, you can copy&paste to a console ;)

# You probably want to do all this mess in some subdirectory :)
mkdir cdgc-test
cd cdgc-test

# First, checkout the repositories.
git clone git://
# If you have problems with git:// URLs, try HTTP:
# git clone
svn co tango

# DMD doesn't care much (as usual) about tags, so you have to use -r to
# checkout the 1.063 revision (you might be good with the latest revision
# too).
svn co -r613 dmd

# Now we have to do some patching, let's start with Tango (only patch 3 is
# *really* necessary, but the others won't hurt).
cd tango
for p in 0001-Fixes-to-be-able-to-parse-the-code-with-Dil.patch \
         0002-Use-the-mutexattr-when-initializing-the-mutex.patch \
         0003-Add-precise-heap-scanning-support.patch \
   wget -O- "$p" |
         patch -p1
cd ..

# Now let's go to DMD
cd dmd
wget -O- "$p" |
      patch -p1

# Since we are in the DMD repo, let's compile it (you may want to add -jN if
# you have N CPUs to speed up things a little).
make -C src -f linux.mak
cd ..

# Good, now we have to wire Tango and CDGC together, just create a symbolic
# link:
cd tango
ln -s ../../../../../cdgc/rt/gc/cdgc tango/core/rt/gc/

# Since I don't know very well the Tango build system, I did a Makefile of my
# own to compile it, so just grab it and compile Tango with it. It will use
# the DMD you just compiled and will compile CDGC by default (you can change
# it via the GC Make variable, for example: make GC=basic to compile Tango
# with the basic GC). The library will be written to obj/libtango-$GC.a, so
# you can have both CDGB and the basic collector easily at hand):
make # Again add -jN if you have N CPUs to make a little faster

# Now all you need now is a decent dmd.conf to put it all together:
cd ..
echo "[Environment]" > dmd/src/dmd.conf
echo -n "DFLAGS=-I$PWD/tango -L-L$PWD/tango/obj " >> dmd/src/dmd.conf
echo -n "-defaultlib=tango-cdgc " >> dmd/src/dmd.conf
echo "-debuglib=tango-cdgc -version=Tango" >> dmd/src/dmd.conf

# Finally, try a Hello World:
cat <<EOT > hello.d

void main()
   Cout("Hello, World").newline;
dmd/src/dmd -run hello.d

# If you don't trust me and you want to be completely sure you have CDGC
# running, try the collect_stats_file option to generate a log of the
# collections:
D_GC_OPTS=collect_stats_file=log dmd/src/dmd -run hello.d
cat log


If you want to make this DMD the default, just add dmd/src to the PATH environment variable or do a proper installation ;)

Let me know if you hit any problem...

CDGC done

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 09- 28 12:16 (updated on 2010- 09- 28 12:16)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, done, en, gc - with 0 comment(s)

I'm sorry about the quick and uninformative post, but I've been almost 2 weeks without Internet and I have to finish the first complete draft of my thesis in a little more than a week, so I don't have much time to write here.

The thing is, to avoid the nasty effect of memory usage being too high for certain programs when using eager allocation, I've made the GC minimize the heap more often. Even when some test are still a little slower with CDGC, but that's only for tests that only stress the GC without doing any actual work, so I think it's OK, in that cases the extra overhead of being concurrent is bigger than the gain (which is inexistent, because there is nothing to do in parallel with the collector).

Finally, I've implemented early collection, which didn't proved very useful, and tried to keep a better occupancy factor of the heap with the new min_free option, without much success either (it looks like the real winner was eager allocation).

I'm sorry I don't have time to show you some graphs this time. Of course the work is not really finished, there are plenty of things to be done still, but I think the GC have come to a point where it can be really useful, and I have to finish my thesis :)

After I'm done, I hope I can work on integrating the GC in Tango and/or Druntime (where there is already a first approach done by Sean Kelly).

Truly concurrent GC using eager allocation

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 09- 10 00:01 (updated on 2010- 09- 10 00:01)
tagged cdgc, concurrent, d, dgc, eager allocation, en, fork - with 3 comment(s)

Finally, I got the first version of CDGC with truly concurrent garbage collection, in the sense that all the threads of the mutator (the program itself) can run in parallel with the collector (well, only the mark phase to be honest :).

You might want to read a previous post about CDGC where I achieved some sort of concurrency by making only the stop-the-world time very short, but the thread that triggered the collection (and any other thread needing any GC service) had to wait until the collection finishes. The thread that triggered the collection needed to wait for the collection to finish to fulfill the memory allocation request (it was triggered because the memory was exhausted), while any other thread needing any GC service needed to acquire the global GC lock (damn global GC lock!).

To avoid this issue, I took a simple approach that I call eager allocation, consisting on spawn the mark phase concurrently but allocating a new memory pool to be able to fulfill the memory request instantly. Doing so, not only the thread that triggered the collection can keep going without waiting the collection to finish, the global GC lock is released and any other thread can use any GC service, and even allocate more memory, since a new pool was allocated.

If the memory is exhausted again before the collection finishes, a new pool is allocated, so everything can keep running. The obvious (bad) consequence of this is potential memory bloat. Since the memory usage is minimized from time to time, this effect should not be too harmful though, but let's see the results, there are plenty of things to analyze from them (a lot not even related to concurrency).

First, a couple of comments about the plots:

  • Times of Dil are multiplied by a factor of 0.1 in all the plots, times of rnddata are too, but only in the pause time and stop-the-world plots. This is only to make the plots more readable.
  • The unreadable labels rotated 45 degrees say: stw, fork and ea. Those stand for Stop-the-world (the basic collector), fork only (concurrent but without eager allocation) and eager allocation respectively. You can click on the images to see a little more readable SVG version.
  • The plots are for one CPU-only because using more CPUs doesn't change much (for these plots).
  • The times were taken from a single run, unlike the total run time plots I usually post. Since a single run have multiple collections, the information about min, max, average and standard deviation still applies for the single run.
  • Stop-the-world time is the time no mutator thread can run. This is not related to the global GC lock, is time the threads are really really paused (this is even necessary for the forking GC to take a snapshot of threads CPU registers and stacks). So, the time no mutator thread can do any useful work might be much bigger than this time, because the GC lock. This time is what I call Pause time. The maximum pause time is probably the most important variable for a GC that tries to minimize pauses, like this one. Is the maximum time a program will stay totally unresponsive (important for a server, a GUI application, a game or any interactive application).
Stop-the-world time for 1 CPU

The stop-the-world time is reduced so much that you can hardly see the times of the fork and ea configuration. It's reduced in all tests by a big margin, except for mcore and the bigarr. For the former it was even increased a little, for the later it was reduced but very little (but only for the ea* configuration, so it might be a bad measure). This is really measuring the Linux fork() time. When the program manages so little data that the mark phase itself is so fast that's faster than a fork(), this is what happens. The good news is, the pause times are small enough for those cases, so no harm is done (except from adding a little more total run time to the program).

Note the Dil maximum stop-the-world time, it's 0.2 seconds, looks pretty big, uh? Well, now remember that this time was multiplied by 0.1, the real maximum stop-the-world for Dil is 2 seconds, and remember this is the minimum amount of time the program is unresponsive! Thank god it's not an interactive application :)

Time to take a look to the real pause time:

Pause time for 1 CPU

OK, this is a little more confusing... The only strong pattern is that pause time is not changed (much) between the swt and fork configurations. This seems to make sense, as both configurations must wait for the whole collection to finish (I really don't know what's happening with the bh test).

For most tests (7), the pause time is much smaller for the ea configuration, 3 tests have much bigger times for it, one is bigger but similar (again mcore) and then is the weird case of bh. The 7 tests where the time is reduced are the ones that seems to make sense, that's what I was looking for, so let's see what's happening with the remaining 3, and for that, let's take a look at the amount of memory the program is using, to see if the memory bloat of allocating extra pools is significant.

Test Maximum heap size (MB)
Program stw ea ea/stw
dil 216 250 1.16
rnddata 181 181 1
voronoi 16 30 1.88
tree 7 114 16.3
bh 80 80 1
mcore 30 38 1.27
bisort 30 30 1
bigarr 11 223 20.3
em3d 63 63 1
sbtree 11 122 11.1
tsp 63 63 1
split 39 39 1

See any relations between the plot and the table? I do. It looks like some programs are not being able to minimize the memory usage, and because of that, the sweep phase (which still have to run in a mutator thread, taking the global GC lock) is taking ages. An easy to try approach is to trigger the minimization of the memory usage not only at when big objects are allocated (like it is now), but that could lead to more mmap()/munmap()s than necessary. And there still problems with pools that are kept alive because a very small object is still alive, which is not solved by this.

So I think a more long term solution would be to introduce what I call early collection too. Meaning, trigger a collection before the memory is exhausted. That would be the next step in the CDGC.

Finally, let's take a look at the total run time of the test programs using the basic GC and CDGC with concurrent marking and eager allocation. This time, let's see what happens with 2 CPUs (and 25 runs):

Total run time for 2 CPUs (25 runs)

Wow! It looks like this is getting really juicy (with exceptions, as usual :)! Dil time is reduced to about 1/3, voronoi is reduced to 1/10!!! Split and mcore have both their time considerably reduced, but that's because another small optimization (unrelated to what we are seeing today), so forget about those two. Same for rnddata, which is reduced because of precise heap scanning. But other tests increased its runtime, most notably bigarr takes almost double the time. Looking at the maximum heap size table, one can find some answers for this too. Another ugly side of early allocation.

For completeness, let's see what happens with the number of collections triggered during the program's life. Here is the previous table with this new data added:

Test Maximum heap size (MB) Number of collections
Program stw ea ea/stw stw ea ea/stw
dil 216 250 1.16 62 50 0.81
rnddata 181 181 1 28 28 1
voronoi 16 30 1.88 79 14 0.18
tree 7 114 16.3 204 32 0.16
bh 80 80 1 27 27 1
mcore 30 38 1.27 18 14 0.78
bisort 30 30 1 10 10 1
bigarr 11 223 20.3 305 40 0.13
em3d 63 63 1 14 14 1
sbtree 11 122 11.1 110 33 0.3
tsp 63 63 1 14 14 1
split 39 39 1 7 7 1

See how the number of collections is practically reduced proportionally to the increase of the heap size. When the increase in size explodes, even when the number of collections is greatly reduced, the sweep time take over and the total run time is increased. Specially in those tests where the program is almost only using the GC (as in sbtree and bigarr). That's why I like the most Dil and voronoi as key tests, they do quite a lot of real work beside asking for memory or using other GC services.

This confirms that the performance gain is not strictly related to the added concurrency, but because of a nice (finally! :) side-effect of eager allocation: removing some pressure from the GC by increasing the heap size a little (Dil gets 3x boost in run time for as little as 1.16x of memory usage; voronoi gets 10x at the expense of almost doubling the heap, I think both are good trade-offs). This shows another weak point of the GC, sometimes the HEAP is way too tight, triggering a lot of collections, which leads to a lot of GC run time overhead. Nothing is done right now to keep a good heap occupancy ratio.

But is there any real speed (in total run time terms) improvement because of the added concurrency? Let's see the run time for 1 CPU:

Total run time for 1 CPU (25 runs)

It looks like there is, specially for my two favourite tests: both Dil and voronoi get a 30% speed boost! That's not bad, not bad at all...

If you want to try it, the repository has been updated with this last changes :). If you do, please let me know how it went.

Recursive vs. iterative marking

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 08- 29 21:54 (updated on 2010- 08- 29 21:54)
tagged benchmark, cdgc, d, dgc, en, gc, iterative, mark, performance, recursive - with 0 comment(s)

After a small (but important) step towards making the D GC truly concurrent (which is my main goal), I've been exploring the possibility of making the mark phase recursive instead of iterative (as it currently is).

The motivation is that the iterative algorithm makes several passes through the entire heap (it doesn't need to do the full job on each pass, it processes only the newly reachable nodes found in the previous iteration, but to look for that new reachable node it does have to iterate over the entire heap). The number of passes is the same as the connectivity graph depth, the best case is where all the heap is reachable through the root set, and the worse is when the heap is a single linked list. The recursive algorithm, on the other hand, needs only a single pass but, of course, it has the problem of potentially consuming a lot of stack space (again, the recurse depth is the same as the connectivity graph depth), so it's not paradise either.

To see how much of a problem is the recurse depth in reality, first I've implemented a fully recursive algorithm, and I found it is a real problem, since I had segmentation faults because the (8MiB by default in Linux) stack overflows. So I've implemented an hybrid approach, setting a (configurable) maximum recurse depth for the marking phase. If the maximum depth is reached, the recursion is stopped and nodes that should be scanned deeply than that are queued to scanned in the next iteration.

Here are some results showing how the total run time is affected by the maximum recursion depth:

The red dot is how the pure iterative algorithm currently performs (it's placed arbitrarily in the plot, as the X-axis doesn't make sense for it).

The results are not very conclusive. Even when the hybrid approach performs better for both Dil and Voronoi when the maximum depth is bigger than 75, the better depth is program specific. Both have its worse case when depth is 0, which makes sense, because is paying the extra complexity of the hybrid algorithm with using its power. As soon as we leave the 0 depth, a big drop is seen, for Voronoi big enough to outperform the purely iterative algorithm, but not for Dil, which matches it near 60 and clearly outperforms it at 100.

As usual, Voronoi challenges all logic, as the best depth is 31 (it was a consistent result among several runs). Between 20 and 50 there is not much variation (except for the magic number 31) but when going beyond that, it worsen slowly but constantly as the depth is increased.

Note that the plots might make the performance improvement look a little bigger than it really is. The best case scenario the gain is 7.5% for Voronoi and 3% for Dil (which is probably better measure for the real world). If I had to choose a default, I'll probably go with 100 because is where both get a performance gain and is still a small enough number to ensure no segmentation faults due to stack exhaustion is caused (only) by the recursiveness of the mark phase (I guess a value of 1000 would be reasonable too, but I'm a little scared of causing inexplicable, magical, mystery segfaults to users). Anyway, for a value of 100, the performance gain is about 1% and 3.5% for Dil and Voronoi respectively.

So I'm not really sure if I should merge this change or not. In the best case scenarios (which requires a work from the user to search for the better depth for its program), the performance gain is not exactly huge and for a reasonable default value is so little that I'm not convinced the extra complexity of the change (because it makes the marking algorithm a little more complex) worth it.

Feel free to leave your opinion (I would even appreciate it if you do :).

CDGC first breath

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 08- 22 23:03 (updated on 2010- 08- 22 23:03)
tagged cdgc, concurrent, d, dgc, en, fork, gc, pause time, stop-the-world - with 7 comment(s)

I'm glad to announce that now, for the first time, CDGC means Concurrent D Garbage Collector, as I have my first (extremely raw and unoptimized) version of the concurrent GC running. And I have to say, I'm very excited and happy with the results from the very small benchmark I did.

The stop-the-world (pause) time was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude for the average, the standard deviation and, probably the more important, the maximum (these are the results for a single run, measuring the pause time for all the collections in that run). This is good news for people needing (soft) real-time in D, even when using the GC. Where the standard D GC have a pause time of 100ms, the CDGC have a pause time of 1ms.

The total run-time of the program was increased a little though, but not as much as the pause time was reduced. Only a 12% performance loss was measured, but this is just the first raw unoptimized version of the CDGC.

All this was measured with the voronoi benchmark, with -n 30000. Here are some plots:

Please note that the GC still has a global lock, so if 2 threads needs to allocate while the collection is running, both will be paused anyways (I have a couple of ideas on how to try to avoid that).

The idea about how to make the GC concurrent is based on the paper Nonintrusive Cloning Garbage Collector with Stock Operating System Support. I'm particularly excited by the results because the reduction of the pause time in the original paper were less than 1 order of magnitude better than their stop-the-world collector, so the preliminary results of the CDGC are much better than I expected.

TypeInfo, static data and the GC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 08- 15 21:39 (updated on 2010- 08- 15 21:39)
tagged cdgc, conservative, d, dgc, en, gc, precise, static data, typeinfo - with 0 comment(s)

The D compiler doesn't provide any information on the static data that the GC must scan, so the runtime/GC have to use OS-dependant tricks to get that information.

Right now, in Linux, the GC gets the static data to scan from the libc's variables __data_start and _end, from which are not much information floating around except for some e-mail from Hans Boehm to the binutils mainling list.

There is a lot of stuff in the static data that doesn't need to be scanned, most notably the TypeInfo, which is a great portion of the static data. C libraries static data, for example, would be scanned too, when it makes no sense to do so.

I noticed CDGC has more than double the static data the basic GC has, just because of TypeInfo (I use about 5 or so more types, one of them is a template, which makes the bloat bigger).

The voronoi test goes from 21KB to 26KB of static data when using CDGC.

It would be nice if the compiler could group all the static that must really be scanned (programs static variables) together and make its limits available to the GC. It would be even nicer to leave static variables that have no pointers out of that group, and even much more nicer to create a pointer map like the one in the patch for precise scanning to allow precise heap scanning. Then only the scan should be scanned in full conservative mode.

I reported a bug with this issue so it doesn't get lost.

Memory allocation patterns

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 08- 14 03:28 (updated on 2010- 08- 14 13:09)
tagged allocation, benchmark, cdgc, d, dgc, dil, en, gc, memory, pattern - with 0 comment(s)


Tango 0.99.9 has a bug in its runtime, which sometimes makes the GC scan memory that should not be scanned. It only affects Dil and Voronoi programs, but in a significant way. The tests in this post are done using a patched runtime, with the bug fixed.


The results for the unpublished programs are now available. You can find the graphic results, the detailed summary and the source code for all the programs (except dil, which can be downloaded from its home site).

After seeing some weird behaviours and how different benchmarks are more or less affected by changes like memory addresses returned by the OS or by different ways to store the type information pointer, I decided to gather some information about how much and what kind of memory are requested by the different benchmarks.

I used the information provided by the malloc_stats_file CDGC option, and generated some stats.

The analysis is done on the allocations requested by the program (calls to gc_malloc()) and contrasting that with the real memory allocated by the GC. Note that only the GC heap memory (that is, memory dedicated to the program, which the GC scans in the collections) is counted (internal GC memory used for bookkeeping is not).

Also note that in this post I generally refer to object meaning a block of memory, it doesn't mean they are actually instance of a class or anything. Finally bear in mind that all the figures shown here are the sum of all the allocations done in the life of a program. If the collected data says a program requested 1GiB of memory, that doesn't mean the program had a residency of 1GiB, the program could had a working set of a few KiB and recycled memory like hell.

When analyzing the real memory allocated by the GC, there are two modes being analyzed, one is the classic conservative mode and the other is the precise mode (as it is in the original patch, storing the type information pointer at the end of the blocks). So the idea here is to measure two major things:

  • The amount of memory wasted by the GC because of how it arranges memory as fixed-size blocks (bins) and large objects that uses whole pages.
  • The extra amount of memory wasted by the GC when using precise mode because it stores the type information pointer at the end of the blocks.

I've selected a few representative benchmarks. Here are the results:

bh allocation pattern

This is a translation by Leonardo Maffi from the Olden Benchmark that does a Barnes–Hut simulation. The program is CPU intensive an does a lot of allocation of about 5 different small objects.

Here is a graphic summary of the allocation requests and real allocated memory for a run with -b 4000:

We can easily see here how the space wasted by the GC memory organization is significant (about 15% wasted), and how the type information pointer is adding an even more significant overhead (about 36% of the memory is wasted). This means that this program will be 15% more subject to false pointers (and will have to scan some extra memory too, but fortunately the majority of the memory doesn't need to be scanned) than it should in conservative mode and that the precise mode makes things 25% worse.

You can also see how the extra overhead in the precise mode is because some objects that should fit in a 16 bin now need a 32 bytes bin to hold the extra pointer. See how there were no waste at all in the conservative mode for objects that should fit a 16 bytes bin. 117MiB are wasted because of that.

Here is a more detailed (but textual) summary of the memory requested and allocated:

15,432,462 objecs, 317,236,335 bytes [302.54MiB]
7,757,429 (50.27%) objecs, 125,360,510 bytes [119.55MiB] (39.52%)
Not scanned
7,675,033 (49.73%) objecs, 191,875,825 bytes [182.99MiB] (60.48%)
Different object sizes
Objects requested with a bin size of:
16 bytes
7,675,064 (49.73%) objects, 122,801,024 bytes [117.11MiB] (38.71%)
32 bytes
7,734,214 (50.12%, 99.85% cumulative) objects, 193,609,617 bytes [184.64MiB] (61.03%, 99.74% cumulative)
64 bytes
23,181 (0.15%, 100% cumulative) objects, 824,988 bytes [805.65KiB] (0.26%, 100% cumulative)
256 bytes
2 (0%, 100% cumulative) objects, 370 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
512 bytes
1 (0%, 100% cumulative) objects, 336 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
Conservative mode
Total allocated
371,780,480 bytes [354.56MiB]
Total wasted
54,544,145 bytes [52.02MiB], 14.67%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
0 bytes (0%)
32 bytes
53,885,231 bytes [51.39MiB] (98.79%, 98.79% cumulative)
64 bytes
658,596 bytes [643.16KiB] (1.21%, 100% cumulative)
256 bytes
142 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
512 bytes
176 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
Precise mode
Total allocated
495,195,296 bytes [472.26MiB]
Total wasted
177,958,961 bytes [169.71MiB], 35.94%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
122,801,024 bytes [117.11MiB] (69.01%)
32 bytes
54,499,023 bytes [51.97MiB] (30.62%, 99.63% cumulative)
64 bytes
658,596 bytes [643.16KiB] (0.37%, 100% cumulative)
256 bytes
142 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
512 bytes
176 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)

bigarr allocation pattern

This is a extremely simple program that just allocate a big array of small-medium objects (all of the same size) I found in the D NG.

Here is the graphic summary:

The only interesting part of this test is how many space is wasted because of the memory organization, which in this case goes up to 30% for the conservative mode (and have no change for the precise mode).

Here is the detailed summary:

12,000,305 objecs, 1,104,160,974 bytes [1.03GiB]
12,000,305 (100%) objecs, 1,104,160,974 bytes [1.03GiB] (100%)
Not scanned
0 (0%) objecs, 0 bytes (0%)
Different object sizes
Objects requested with a bin size of
128 bytes
12,000,000 (100%, 100% cumulative) objects, 1,056,000,000 bytes [1007.08MiB] (95.64%, 95.64% cumulative)
256 bytes
2 (0%, 100% cumulative) objects, 322 bytes (0%, 95.64% cumulative)
512 bytes
1 (0%, 100% cumulative) objects, 336 bytes (0%, 95.64% cumulative)
more than a page
302 (0%) objects, 48,160,316 bytes [45.93MiB] (4.36%)
Conservative mode
Total allocated
1,584,242,808 bytes [1.48GiB]
Total wasted
480,081,834 bytes [457.84MiB], 30.3%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
128 bytes
480,000,000 bytes [457.76MiB] (99.98%, 99.98% cumulative)
256 bytes
190 bytes (0%, 99.98% cumulative)
512 bytes
176 bytes (0%, 99.98% cumulative)
more than a page
81,468 bytes [79.56KiB] (0.02%)
Precise mode
Total allocated
1,584,242,808 bytes [1.48GiB]
Total wasted
480,081,834 bytes [457.84MiB], 30.3%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of:
128 bytes
480,000,000 bytes [457.76MiB] (99.98%, 99.98% cumulative)
256 bytes
190 bytes (0%, 99.98% cumulative)
512 bytes
176 bytes (0%, 99.98% cumulative)
more than a page
81,468 bytes [79.56KiB] (0.02%)

mcore allocation pattern

This is program that test the contention produced by the GC when appending to (thread-specific) arrays in several threads concurrently (again, found at the D NG). For this analysis the concurrency doesn't play any role though, is just a program that do a lot of appending to a few arrays.

Here are the graphic results:

This is the most boring of the examples, as everything works as expected =)

You can clearly see how the arrays grow, passing through each bin size and finally becoming big objects which take most of the allocated space. Almost nothing need to be scanned (they are int arrays), and practically there is no waste. That's a good decision by the array allocation algorithm, which seems to exploit the bin sizes to the maximum. Since almost all the data is doesn't need to be scanned, there is no need to store the type information pointers, so there is no waste either for the precise mode (the story would be totally different if the arrays were of objects that should be scanned, as probably each array allocation would waste about 50% of the memory to store the type information pointer).

Here is the detailed summary:

Total requested
367 objecs, 320,666,378 bytes [305.81MiB]
8 (2.18%) objecs, 2,019 bytes [1.97KiB] (0%)
Not scanned
359 (97.82%) objecs, 320,664,359 bytes [305.81MiB] (100%)
Different object sizes
Objects requested with a bin size of
16 bytes
4 (1.09%) objects, 20 bytes (0%)
32 bytes
5 (1.36%, 2.45% cumulative) objects, 85 bytes (0%, 0% cumulative)
64 bytes
4 (1.09%, 3.54% cumulative) objects, 132 bytes (0%, 0% cumulative)
128 bytes
4 (1.09%, 4.63% cumulative) objects, 260 bytes (0%, 0% cumulative)
256 bytes
6 (1.63%, 6.27% cumulative) objects, 838 bytes (0%, 0% cumulative)
512 bytes
9 (2.45%, 8.72% cumulative) objects, 2,708 bytes [2.64KiB] (0%, 0% cumulative)
1024 bytes
4 (1.09%, 9.81% cumulative) objects, 2,052 bytes [2KiB] (0%, 0% cumulative)
2048 bytes
4 (1.09%, 10.9% cumulative) objects, 4,100 bytes [4KiB] (0%, 0% cumulative)
4096 bytes
4 (1.09%, 11.99% cumulative) objects, 8,196 bytes [8KiB] (0%, 0.01% cumulative)
more than a page
323 (88.01%) objects, 320,647,987 bytes [305.79MiB] (99.99%)
Conservative mode
Total allocated
321,319,494 bytes [306.43MiB]
Total wasted
653,116 bytes [637.81KiB], 0.2%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
44 bytes (0.01%)
32 bytes
75 bytes (0.01%, 0.02% cumulative)
64 bytes
124 bytes (0.02%, 0.04% cumulative)
128 bytes
252 bytes (0.04%, 0.08% cumulative)
256 bytes
698 bytes (0.11%, 0.18% cumulative)
512 bytes
1,900 bytes [1.86KiB] (0.29%, 0.47% cumulative)
1024 bytes
2,044 bytes [2KiB] (0.31%, 0.79% cumulative)
2048 bytes
4,092 bytes [4KiB] (0.63%, 1.41% cumulative)
4096 bytes
8,188 bytes [8KiB] (1.25%, 2.67% cumulative)
more than a page
635,699 bytes [620.8KiB] (97.33%)
Precise mode
Total allocated
321,319,494 bytes [306.43MiB]
Total wasted
653,116 bytes [637.81KiB], 0.2%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
44 bytes (0.01%)
32 bytes
75 bytes (0.01%, 0.02% cumulative)
64 bytes
124 bytes (0.02%, 0.04% cumulative)
128 bytes
252 bytes (0.04%, 0.08% cumulative)
256 bytes
698 bytes (0.11%, 0.18% cumulative)
512 bytes
1,900 bytes [1.86KiB] (0.29%, 0.47% cumulative)
1024 bytes
2,044 bytes [2KiB] (0.31%, 0.79% cumulative)
2048 bytes
4,092 bytes [4KiB] (0.63%, 1.41% cumulative)
4096 bytes
8,188 bytes [8KiB] (1.25%, 2.67% cumulative)
more than a page
635,699 bytes [620.8KiB] (97.33%)

voronoi allocation pattern

This is one of my favourites, because is always problematic. It "computes the voronoi diagram of a set of points recursively on the tree" and is also taken from the Olden Benchmark and translated by Leonardo Maffi to D.

Here are the graphic results for a run with -n 30000:

This have a little from all the previous examples. Practically all the heap should be scanned (as in bigarr), it wastes a considerably portion of the heap because of the fixed-size blocks (as all but mcore), it wastes just a very little more because of type information (as all but bh) but that waste comes from objects that should fit in a 16 bytes bin but is stored in a 32 bytes bin instead (as in bh).

Maybe that's why it's problematic, it touches a little mostly all the GC flaws.

Here is the detailed summary:

Total requested
1,309,638 objecs, 33,772,881 bytes [32.21MiB]
1,309,636 (100%) objecs, 33,772,849 bytes [32.21MiB] (100%)
Not scanned
2 (0%) objecs, 32 bytes (0%)
Different object sizes
Objects requested with a bin size of
16 bytes
49,152 (3.75%) objects, 786,432 bytes [768KiB] (2.33%)
32 bytes
1,227,715 (93.74%, 97.5% cumulative) objects, 31,675,047 bytes [30.21MiB] (93.79%, 96.12% cumulative)
64 bytes
32,768 (2.5%, 100% cumulative) objects, 1,310,720 bytes [1.25MiB] (3.88%, 100% cumulative)
256 bytes
2 (0%, 100% cumulative) objects, 346 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
512 bytes
1 (0%, 100% cumulative) objects, 336 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
Conservative mode
Total allocated
42,171,488 bytes [40.22MiB]
Total wasted
8,398,607 bytes [8.01MiB], 19.92%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
0 bytes (0%)
32 bytes
7,611,833 bytes [7.26MiB] (90.63%, 90.63% cumulative)
64 bytes
786,432 bytes [768KiB] (9.36%, 100% cumulative)
256 bytes
166 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
512 bytes
176 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
Precise mode
Total allocated
42,957,888 bytes [40.97MiB]
Total wasted
9,185,007 bytes [8.76MiB], 21.38%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
786,400 bytes [767.97KiB] (8.56%)
32 bytes
7,611,833 bytes [7.26MiB] (82.87%, 91.43% cumulative)
64 bytes
786,432 bytes [768KiB] (8.56%, 100% cumulative)
256 bytes
166 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)
512 bytes
176 bytes (0%, 100% cumulative)

Dil allocation pattern

Finally, this is by far my favourite, the only real-life program, and the most colorful example (literally =).

Dil is a D compiler, and as such, it works a lot with strings, a lot of big chunks of memory, a lot of small objects, it has it all! String manipulation stress the GC a lot, because it uses objects (blocks) of all possible sizes ever, specially extremely small objects (less than 8 bytes, even a lot of blocks of just one byte!).

Here are the results of a run of Dil to generate Tango documentation (around 555 source files are processed):

Didn't I say it was colorful?

This is like the voronoi but taken to the extreme, it really have it all, it allocates all types of objects in significant quantities, it wastes a lot of memory (23%) and much more when used in precise mode (33%).

Here is the detailed summary:

7,307,686 objecs, 322,411,081 bytes [307.48MiB]
6,675,124 (91.34%) objecs, 227,950,157 bytes [217.39MiB] (70.7%)
Not scanned
632,562 (8.66%) objecs, 94,460,924 bytes [90.08MiB] (29.3%)
Different object sizes
Objects requested with a bin size of
16 bytes
2,476,688 (33.89%) objects, 15,693,576 bytes [14.97MiB] (4.87%)
32 bytes
3,731,864 (51.07%, 84.96% cumulative) objects, 91,914,815 bytes [87.66MiB] (28.51%, 33.38% cumulative)
64 bytes
911,016 (12.47%, 97.43% cumulative) objects, 41,918,888 bytes [39.98MiB] (13%, 46.38% cumulative)
128 bytes
108,713 (1.49%, 98.91% cumulative) objects, 8,797,572 bytes [8.39MiB] (2.73%, 49.11% cumulative)
256 bytes
37,900 (0.52%, 99.43% cumulative) objects, 6,354,323 bytes [6.06MiB] (1.97%, 51.08% cumulative)
512 bytes
22,878 (0.31%, 99.75% cumulative) objects, 7,653,461 bytes [7.3MiB] (2.37%, 53.45% cumulative)
1024 bytes
7,585 (0.1%, 99.85% cumulative) objects, 4,963,029 bytes [4.73MiB] (1.54%, 54.99% cumulative)
2048 bytes
3,985 (0.05%, 99.9% cumulative) objects, 5,451,493 bytes [5.2MiB] (1.69%, 56.68% cumulative)
4096 bytes
2,271 (0.03%, 99.93% cumulative) objects, 6,228,433 bytes [5.94MiB] (1.93%, 58.61% cumulative)
more than a page
4,786 (0.07%) objects, 133,435,491 bytes [127.25MiB] (41.39%)
Conservative mode
Total allocated
419,368,774 bytes [399.94MiB]
Total wasted
96,957,693 bytes [92.47MiB], 23.12%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
23,933,432 bytes [22.82MiB] (24.68%)
32 bytes
27,504,833 bytes [26.23MiB] (28.37%, 53.05% cumulative)
64 bytes
16,386,136 bytes [15.63MiB] (16.9%, 69.95% cumulative)
128 bytes
5,117,692 bytes [4.88MiB] (5.28%, 75.23% cumulative)
256 bytes
3,348,077 bytes [3.19MiB] (3.45%, 78.68% cumulative)
512 bytes
4,060,075 bytes [3.87MiB] (4.19%, 82.87% cumulative)
1024 bytes
2,804,011 bytes [2.67MiB] (2.89%, 85.76% cumulative)
2048 bytes
2,709,787 bytes [2.58MiB] (2.79%, 88.56% cumulative)
4096 bytes
3,073,583 bytes [2.93MiB] (3.17%, 91.73% cumulative)
more than a page
8,020,067 bytes [7.65MiB] (8.27%)
Precise mode:
Total allocated
482,596,774 bytes [460.24MiB]
Total wasted
160,185,693 bytes [152.76MiB], 33.19%
Wasted due to objects that should use a bin of
16 bytes
26,820,824 bytes [25.58MiB] (16.74%)
32 bytes
85,742,913 bytes [81.77MiB] (53.53%, 70.27% cumulative)
64 bytes
18,070,872 bytes [17.23MiB] (11.28%, 81.55% cumulative)
128 bytes
5,221,884 bytes [4.98MiB] (3.26%, 84.81% cumulative)
256 bytes
3,400,557 bytes [3.24MiB] (2.12%, 86.93% cumulative)
512 bytes
4,125,611 bytes [3.93MiB] (2.58%, 89.51% cumulative)
1024 bytes
2,878,763 bytes [2.75MiB] (1.8%, 91.31% cumulative)
2048 bytes
2,760,987 bytes [2.63MiB] (1.72%, 93.03% cumulative)
4096 bytes
3,143,215 bytes [3MiB] (1.96%, 94.99% cumulative)
more than a page
8,020,067 bytes [7.65MiB] (5.01%)


I've analyzed other small fabricated benchmarks, but all of them had results very similar to the ones shown here.

I think the overallocation problem is more serious than what one might think at first sight. Bear in mind this is not GC overhead, is not because of internal GC data. Is memory the GC or the mutator cannot use. Is memory wasted because of fragmentation (planned fragmentation, but fragmentation at least). And I don't think this is the worse problem. The worse problem is, this memory will need to be scanned in most cases (Dil needs to scan 70% of the total memory requested), and maybe the worse of all is that is subject to false pointer. A false pointer to a memory location that is not actually being used by the program will keep the block alive! If is a large object (several pages) that could be pretty nasty.

This problems can be addressed in several ways. One is mitigate the problem by checking (when type information is available) what portions of the memory is really used and what is wasted, and don't keep things alive when they are only pointed to wasted memory. This is not free though, it will consume more CPU cycles so the solution could be worse than the problem.

I think it worth experimenting with other heap organizations, for example, I would experiment with one free list for object size instead of pre-fixed-sizes. I would even experiment with a free list for each type when type information is available, that would save a lot of space (internal GC space) when storing type information. Some specialization for strings could be useful too.

Unfortunately I don't think I'll have the time to do this, at least for the thesis, but I think is a very rich and interesting ground to experiment.

GDC activity

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 08- 09 22:21 (updated on 2010- 08- 09 22:21)
tagged activity, d, dmd, en, floss, gcc, gdc - with 0 comment(s)

There is a lot of activity lately in the GDC world, both the repository and the mailing list (mostly closed bug reports notification).

The reborn of GDC is a courtesy of Vincenzo Ampolo (AKA goshawk) and Michael P. (I'm sorry, I couldn't find his last name), but it received a big boost lately since Iain Buclaw (apparently from Ubuntu, judging from his e-mail address) got commit access to the repository in July.

They are working in updating both the DMD front-end and the GCC back-end and judging from the commits, the front-end is updated to DMD 1.062 and 2.020 (they are working on Druntime integration now) and the back-end works with GCC 3.4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4 is in the works.

Really great news! Thanks for the good work!

Type information at the end of the block considered harmful

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 08- 07 14:24 (updated on 2010- 08- 09 10:22)
tagged benchmark, cdgc, d, dgc, en, gc, precise - with 0 comment(s)

Yes, I know I'm not Dijkstra, but I always wanted to do a considered harmful essay =P

And I'm talking about a very specific issue, so this will probably a boring reading for most people :)

This is about my research in D garbage collection, the CDGC, and related to a recent post and the precise heap scanning patch.

I've been playing with the patch for a couple of weeks now, and even when some of the tests in my benchmark became more stable, other tests had the inverse effect, and other tests even worsen their performance.

The extra work done by the patch should not be too significant compared with the work it avoids by no scanning things that are no pointers, so the performance, intuitively speaking, should be considerably increased for test that have a lot of false pointers and for the other tests, at least not be worse or less stable. But that was not what I observed.

I finally got to investigate this issue, and found out that when the precise version was clearly slower than the Tango basic collector, it was due to a difference in the number of collections triggered by the test. Sometimes a big difference, and sometimes with a lot of variation. The number usually never approached to the best value achieved by the basic collector.

For example, the voronoi test with N = 30_000, the best run with the basic collector triggered about 60 collections, varying up to 90, while the precise scanning triggered about 80, with very little variation. Even more, if I ran the tests using setarch to avoid heap addresses randomization (see the other post for details), the basic collector triggered about 65 collections always, while the precise collector still triggered 80, so there was something wrong with the precise scanning independently of the heap addresses.

So the suspicions I had about storing the type information pointer at the end of the block being the cause of the problem became even more suspicious. So I added an option to make the precise collector conservative. The collection algorithm, that changed between collectors, was untouched, the precise collector just don't store the type information when is configured in conservative mode, so it scans all the memory as if it didn't had type information. The results where almost the same as the basic collector, so the problem really was the space overhead of storing the type information in the same blocks the mutator stores it's data.

It looks like the probability of keeping blocks alive incorrectly because of false pointer, even when they came just from the static data and the stack (and other non-precise types, like unions) is increased significantly because of the larger blocks.

The I tried to strip the programs (all the test were using programs with debug info to ease the debugging when I brake the GC :), and the number of collections decreased considerably in average, and the variation between runs too. So it looks like that in the scanned static data are included the debug symbols or there is something else adding noise. This for both precise and conservative scanning, but the effect is worse with precise scanning. Running the programs without heap address randomization (setarch -R), usually decreases the number of collections and the variance too.

Finally, I used a very naïve (but easy) way of storing the type information pointers outside the GC scanned blocks, wasting 25% of space just to store this information (as explained in a comment to the bug report), but I insist, that overhead is outside the GC scanned blocks, unlike the small overhead imposed by storing a pointer at the end of that blocks. Even with such high memory overhead, the results were surprising, the voronoi number of collections doing precise scanning dropped to about 68 (very stable) and the total runtime was a little smaller than the best basic GC times, which made less collections (and were more unstable between runs).

Note that there are still several test that are worse for the CDGC (most notably Dil, the only real-life application :), there are plenty of changes between both collectors and I still didn't look for the causes.

I'll try to experiment with a better way of storing the type information pointers outside the GC blocks, probably using a hash table.

At last but not least, here are some figures (basic is the Tango basic collector, cdgc is the CDGC collector with the specified modifications):

Precise scanning patch doing conservative scanning (not storing the type information at all).

Precise scanning storing the type information at the end of the GC blocks.

Precise scanning storing the type information outside the GC blocks.

Here are the same tests, but with the binaries stripped:

Precise scanning patch doing conservative scanning (not storing the type information at all). Stripped.

Precise scanning storing the type information at the end of the GC blocks. Stripped.

Precise scanning storing the type information outside the GC blocks. Stripped.

Here are the same tests as above, but disabling Linux heap addresses randomization (setarch -R):

Precise scanning patch doing conservative scanning (not storing the type information at all). Stripped. No addresses randomization.

Precise scanning storing the type information at the end of the GC blocks. Stripped. No addresses randomization.

Precise scanning storing the type information outside the GC blocks. Stripped. No addresses randomization.


I noticed that the plots doesn't always reflect 100% what's stated in the text, that is because the text was written with another run results and it seems like the tested programs are very sensitive to the heap and binary addresses the kernel assign to the program.

Anyway, what you can see in the plots very clear is how stripping the binaries changes the results a lot and how the performance is particularly improved when storing the type information pointer outside the GC'ed memory when the binaries are not stripped.

Calling abort() on unhandled exception

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 07- 30 12:01 (updated on 2010- 07- 30 12:01)
tagged abort, d, en, exception, mail, rant - with 0 comment(s)

This is one of those threads where I want to drop my work on the GC and kill some of the D's main developers.

Please, at least learn a little about abort() before giving an opinion!

Presenting CDGC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 07- 28 18:48 (updated on 2010- 07- 28 18:48)
tagged cdgc, d, dgc, en, gc, git, intro, repository - with 0 comment(s)

I've just published the git repository of my D GC implementation: CDGC. The name stands for Concurrent D Garbage Collector but right now you may call it Configurable D Garbage Collector, as there is no concurrency at all yet, but the GC is configurable via environment variables :)

It's based on the Tango (0.99.9) basic GC, there are only few changes at the moment, probably the bigger ones are:

  • Runtime configurability using environment variables.
  • Logging of malloc()s and collections to easily get stats about time and space consumed by the GC (option malloc_stats_file [str] and collect_stats_file [str]).
  • Precise heap scanning based on the patches published in bug 3463 (option conservative [bool]).
  • Runtime configurable debug features (option mem_stomp [bool] and sentinel [bool]).
  • Other non user-visible cleanups.

The configuration is done via the D_GC_OPTS environment variable, and the format is:


Where opt1, opt2, opt3 and bool_opt are option names and value is their respective values. Boolean options can omit the value (which means true) or use a value of 0 or 1 to express false and true respectively. String options have no limitations, except they can't have the : char in their values and they have a maximum value length (255 at this moment).

At the moment is a little slower than the Tango basic GC, because the precise scanning is done very naively and a lot of calls to findPool() are done. This will change in the future.

There is a lot of work to be done (cleanup, optimization and the concurrent part :), but I'm making it public because maybe someone could want to adapt some of the ideas or follow the development.

C++ template WTF

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 07- 25 20:22 (updated on 2010- 07- 25 20:22)
tagged c++, d, en, programming, template, wtf - with 0 comment(s)

See this small program:

template<typename T1>
struct A {
        template<typename T2>
        void foo_A() {}

template<typename T>
struct B : A<T> {
        void foo_B() {
                this->foo_A<int>(); // line 10

int main() {
        B<int> b;
        return 0;

You may think it should compile. Well, it doesn't:

g++ t.cpp -o t
t.cpp: In member function ‘void B<T>::foo_B()’:
t.cpp:10: error: expected primary-expression before ‘int’
t.cpp:10: error: expected ‘;’ before ‘int’

Today I've learned a new (horrible) feature of C++, foo_A is an ambiguous symbol for C++. I've seen the typename keyword being used to disambiguate types before (specially when using iterators) but never a template. Here is the code that works:

template<typename T1>
struct A {
        template<typename T2>
        void foo_A() {}

template<typename T>
struct B : A<T> {
        void foo_B() {
                this->template foo_A<int>();
                //    ^^^^^^^^
                // or: A<T>::template foo_A<int>();
                // but not simply: template foo_A<int>();

int main() {
        B<int> b;
        return 0;

Note how you have to help the compiler, explicitly saying yes, believe me, foo_A is a template because it has no clue. Also note that the template keyword is only needed when A, B and A::foo_A are all templates; remove the template<...> to any of them, and the original example will compile flawlessly, so this is a special special special case.

Yeah, really spooky!

In D things are more natural, because templates are not ambiguous (thanks to the odd symbol!(Type) syntax), you can just write:

class A(T1) {
        void foo_A(T2)() {}

class B(T) : A!(T) {
        void foo_B() {

void main() {
        B!(int) b;

And all works as expected.

Performance WTF

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 07- 14 00:47 (updated on 2010- 07- 25 00:11)
tagged d, dgc, en, gc, make, memory layout, performance, voronoi, wtf - with 1 comment(s)

How do I start describing this problem? Let's try to do it in chronological order...


I've collected a bunch of little programs to use as a benchmark suite for the garbage collector for my thesis. I was running only a few manually each time I've made a change to the GC to see how things were going (I didn't want to make changes that degrade the performance). A little tired of this (and missing the point of having several tests using just a few), I've decided to build a Makefile to compile the programs, run the tests and generate some graphs with the timings to compare the performance against the current D GC (Tango really).

The Problem

When done, I noticed a particular test that was notably slower in my implementation (it went from ~3 seconds to ~5 seconds). Here is the result (see the voronoi test, if you can read the labels, there is some overlapping because my effort to improve the graph was truncated by this issue :).

But I didn't recall it being that way when running the test manually. So I ran the test manually again, and it took ~3 seconds, not ~5. So I started to dig where the difference came from. You'll be surprised by my findings, the difference came from executing the tests inside the Makefile!

Yes, take a look at this (please note that I've removed all output from the voronoi program, the only change I've made):

$ /usr/bin/time -f%e ./voronoi -n 30000
$ echo 'all:' > Makefile
$ echo -e '\t$C' >> Makefile
$ make C="/usr/bin/time -f%e ./voronoi -n 30000"
/usr/bin/time -f%e ./voronoi -n 30000

This is not just one isolated run, I've tried hundreds of runs and the results are reproducible and stable.

Further Investigation

I don't remember exactly how I started, but early enough, noticing that the Tango's basic GC didn't suffered from that problem, and being my GC based on that one, I bisected my repository to see what was introducing such behaviour. The offending patch was removing the difference between committed and uncommitted pages in pools. I can see that this patch could do more harm than good now (I didn't tried the benchmark when I did that change I think), because more pages are looped when working with pools, but I can't see how this would affect only the program when it's executed by Make!!!

I had a patch that made thing really nasty but not a clue why they were nasty. I've tried everything. First, the obvious: use nice and ionice (just in case) to see if I was just being unlucky with the system load (very unlikely since I did hundreds of runs in different moments, but still). No change.

I've tried running it on another box. Mine is a Quad-Core, so I've tried the Dual-Core from work and I had the same problem, only the timing difference were a little smaller (about ~4.4 seconds), so I thought it might be something to do to with the multi-cores, so I've tried it in a single core, but the problem was the same (~10.5 seconds inside make, ~7 outside). I've tried with taskset in the multi-core boxes too. I've tried putting all the CPUs with the performance governor using cpufreq-set too, but didn't help.

Since I'm using DMD, which works only in 32 bits for now, and since my box, and the box at work are both 64 bits, I suspected from that too, but the old AMD is 32 bits and I see the problem there too.

I've tried valgrind + callgrind + kcachegrind but it seems like valgrind emulation is not affected by whatever difference is when the program is ran inside make because the results for the run inside and outside make were almost identical.

I've tried env -i, just in case some weird environment variable was making the difference, but nothing.

I've tried strace too, to see if I spotted anything weird, and I saw a couple of weird things (like the addresses returned by mmap being suspiciously very different), but nothing too concrete (but I think inspecting the strace results more thoughtfully might be one of the most fertile paths to follow). I took a look at the timings of the syscalls and there was nothing taking too much time, most of the time is spent in the programs calculations.

So I'm really lost here. I still have no idea where the difference could come from, and I guess I'll have to run the tests from a separate shell script instead of directly inside make because of this. I'll ask to the make developers about this, my only guess is that maybe make is doing some trickery with the scheduler of something like that for the -j option. And I'll take a look to the offending patch too, to see if the performance was really degraded and maybe I'll revert it if it does, no matter what happen with this issue.

If you have any ideas on what could be going on, anything, please let me know (in a comment of via e-mail). Thanks :)


I've posted this to the Make mailing list, but unfortunately didn't got any useful answer. Thanks anyway to all the people that replied with nice suggestions!


Thanks Alb for the investigation, that was a 1/4kg of ice-cream well earned =P

A couple of notes about his findings. An easy way to trigger this behaviour is using the command setarch, the option -L changes the memory layout to ADDR_COMPAT_LAYOUT, see the commit that introduced the new layout for more details.

The call to setrlimit(RLIMIT_STACK,  RLIM_INFINITY) by Make (which has a reason) triggers that behaviour too because the new layout can't have an unlimited stack, so using ulimit (ulimit -s unlimited) causes the same behaviour.

The same way, if you type ulimit -s 8192 ./voronoi as a command in a Makefile, the effect is reverted and the command behaves as outside the Makefile.

Part of the mystery is solved, but a question remains: why the test is so address-space-layout dependant? It smells like a GC bug (present in the basic GC too, as other tests I've done show the same odd behaviour, less visibly, but still, probably because of the removal of the distinction between committed and uncommitted memory patch).


Last update, I promise! =)

I think I know what is adding the extra variance when the memory layout is randomized: false pointers.

Since the GC is conservative, data is usually misinterpreted as pointers. It seems that are address spaces that makes much more likely that simple data is misinterpreted as a valid pointer, at least for the voronoi test. This is consistent with other tests. Tests with random data notably increases their variance among runs and are pretty stable when the memory layout is not randomized.

I'll try to give the patch to integrate precise heap scanning a try, and see if it improves things.

What remains a mystery is what happened with the committed memory distinction, now I can't reproduce the results. I made so many measures and changes, that maybe I just got lost in a bad measure (for example, with the CPU using the ondemand governor). I've tried again the tests with and without that change and the results are pretty the same (a little better for the case with the distinction, but a really tiny difference indeed).

Well, that's all for now, I'll give this post a rest =)


Don't believe me, ever! =P

I just wanted to say that's is confirmed, the high variance in the timings when heap randomization is used is because of false pointers. See this comment for more details.

Delegates and inlining

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 06- 28 12:30 (updated on 2010- 06- 28 12:30)
tagged d, delegate, dgc, en, gc, inline, inlining, optimization, performance - with 3 comment(s)

Sometimes performance issues matter more than you might think for a language. In this case I'm talking about the D programming language.

I'm trying to improve the GC, and I want to improve it not only in terms of performance, but in terms of code quality too. But I'm hitting some performance issues that prevent me to make the code better.

D support high level constructs, like delegates (aka closures). For example, to do a simple linear search I wanted to use this code:

T* find_if(bool delegate(ref T) predicate)
   for (size_t i = 0; i < this._size; i++)
      if (predicate(this._data[i]))
         return this._data + i;
   return null;
auto p = find_if((ref T t) { return t > 5; });

But in DMD, you don't get that predicate inlined (neither the find_if() call, for that matter), so you're basically screwed, suddenly you code is ~4x slower. Seriously, I'm not joking, using callgrind to profile the program (DMD's profiler doesn't work for me, I get a stack overflow for a recursive call when I try to use it), doing the call takes 4x more instructions, and in a real life example, using Dil to generate the Tango documentation, I get a 3.3x performance penalty for using this high-level construct.

I guess this is why D2's sort uses string mixins instead of delegates for this kind of things. The only lectures that I can find from this is delegates are failing in D, either because they have a bad syntax (compare sort(x, (ref X a, ref X b) { return a > b; }) with sort!"a < b"(x)) or because their performance sucks (mixins are inlined by definition, think of C macros). The language designer is telling you "don't use that feature".

Fortunately the later is only a DMD issue, LDC is able to inline those predicates (they have to inhibit the DMD front-end inlining to let LLVM do the dirty work, and it definitely does it better).

The problem is I can't use LDC because for some unknown reason it produces a non-working Dil executable, and Dil is the only real-life program I have to test and benchmark the GC.

I think this issue really hurts D, because if you can't write performance critical code using higher-level D constructs, you can't showcase your own language in the important parts.

DMD 64 bits

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 06- 21 11:37 (updated on 2010- 07- 17 12:37)
tagged 64 bits, amd64, backend, compiler, d, dmd, en, x86-64 - with 1 comment(s)

Big news: DMD 64 bits support has just been started! It almost shadows the born of the new public DMD test suite (but I think the latter if far more important in the long term).

LDC and LLVM 2.7

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 05- 19 20:32 (updated on 2010- 05- 19 20:32)
tagged bitbucket, d, en, ldc, llvm, tomas lindquist olsen - with 0 comment(s)

tomas Lindquist Olsen is back!

And now LDC is updated to work with LLVM 2.7. I hope this is not an isolated event and LDC development becomes as active as it used to be =)

The sources has been moved to Bitbucket too, so if you usually keep up to date you'll have to change the repo URL.

GDB will support the D programming language

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 04- 28 15:48 (updated on 2010- 04- 29 17:07)
tagged d, dwarf, en, gdb, patch - with 6 comment(s)

Greate news! I think I can say now that GDB will support the D programming language soon (basically name demangling and pretty-printing some data types, like strings and dynamic arrays; if you're looking for the D extension to DWARF, you'll have to wait a little longer for that).

The D support patch was started by John Demme a long time ago, and finished by Mihail Zenkov, who was in charge of merging the patch to the current development branch of GDB and going through the review process.

In the words of Joel Brobecker:

The patch is approved (good job!).

I hope the patch is committed soon, so we can have it in the next GDB release.

Congratulations and thanks to all the people involved in both the patch itself and the review process.

DMD(FE) speller (suggestions)

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 03- 05 12:07 (updated on 2010- 03- 05 12:07)
tagged clang, compiler, d, dmd, dmdfe, en, error, patch, spell - with 0 comment(s)

After some repetitive discussions about how to improve error messages (usually inspired by clang), it looks like now the DMD frontend can suggest the correct symbol name when you have a typo =)

First accepted patch for DMD(FE)

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 02- 22 13:45 (updated on 2010- 02- 22 13:45)
tagged d, dmd, dmdfe, en, patch, string import - with 0 comment(s)

Some time ago I wrote a partial patch to fix DMD's issue 3420:

Allow string import of files using subdirectories

const data = import("dir/data.txt");

Specifying -J. for DMD 1.041 is sufficient to allow this to compile.

I couldn't find an option for DMD 1.042 and newer which would allow this to compile.

It's a partial patch because it's implemented only for Posix OSs. The patch passed unnoticed until changeset 389, when the restrictions on string imports became even more evident, and I commented the issue in the DMD internals ML. Fortunately Walter accepted the patch; well accept might be a very strong word, since Walter never really accepts a patch, he always write a new patch based on the submitted one, don't even dream on getting some feedback about it.

But well, that's how he works. At least now in Posix (he said he didn't find a way to do this in Windows) there are no silly restrictions on string imports, without sacrificing security =)

Generating Good Syntax Errors

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 02- 13 19:04 (updated on 2010- 02- 13 19:04)
tagged bison, compiler, d, en, parser generator, syntax error, yacc - with 0 comment(s)

Here is a nice article by Russ Cox explaining how to plug nice syntax errors to parser generators, specifically Bison. The gc compiler suite for Google's Go now is using that trick.

Google's Go will be part of GCC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 01- 28 11:40 (updated on 2010- 01- 28 11:40)
tagged compiler, d, dmd, en, fsf, gcc, golang, google, software - with 0 comment(s)

Wow! Google's Go (remember there is another Go) programming language front-end for GCC has been accepted for merging into GCC 4.5.

Just when there was some discussion (started by Jerry Quinn [*]) in D on how the DMD front-end could be pushed to be merged in GCC too, but DigitalMars (Walter) doesn't want to give away the copyright of his front-end (they are exploring some alternative options though). Maybe the inclusion of Google's Go makes Walter think harder for a solution to the legal problems :).

[*]He reported a lot of bugs in the language specification because he was planning to start a new D front-end, which can be donated to the FSF for inclusion in GCC.

DMD beta

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 01- 27 21:01 (updated on 2010- 01- 27 21:01)
tagged beta, compiler, d, development model, dmd, druntime, en, phobos, software - with 2 comment(s)

After some discussion [*] in the D newsgroup about the value of having release candidates for DMD (due to the high number of regressions introduced in new versions mostly), Walter agreed to make public what he called beta versions of the compiler, which he sent privately to people who asked for them (like some Tango developers).

The new DMD betas are announced in a special mailing list (available through Gmane too). It seems like Walter want to keep the beta releases with some kind of secrecy, or only for people really interested on them (the zip files are even password protected! But the password is announced in a public mailing list, that doesn't make much sense =/). I think he should encourage people to try them as much as possible instead, but one step at the time, at least now people have a way to test the compiler before it's released.

I can say without fear that the experience has been very successful already, even when there is no DMD release yet that came from a beta pre-release, you can see in the beta mailing list that multiple regressions have been discovered and fixed because this new beta releases. I think the reliability of the compiler has been increased already. Is really interesting to see how the quality of a product increases proportionally to the level of openness and the numbers of eyes doing peer review.

The new DMD release should be published very soon, as all the regressions seems to be fixed now and big projects like Tango, GtkD and QTD compiles (a lot of focus on fixing bugs that prevented the later to compile has been put into this release, specially from Rainer Schuetze, who submitted a lot of patches).

So kudos for a new era in D, I think this is another big milestone for having a reliable compiler.

[*]I'm sure there was previos requests for having release candidates, I know I asked for it, but I can't find the threads in the archives =) (compiling online)

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 01- 14 21:19 (updated on 2010- 01- 14 21:19)
tagged compiler, d, en, web - with 2 comment(s)

I'm almost sure I've seen this before, at least for D, but I just found, a simple site where you can try your code online (compile and run), for several languages, including D (DMD 2.008, pretty old, but it's something ;)

You can see my simple hello world =)

Merging DMD FE 1.055 in LDC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2010- 01- 06 22:09 (updated on 2010- 01- 06 22:09)
tagged 1.055, d, dmd, en, ldc, merge, patch - with 1 comment(s)

Motivated by a couple of long waited forward references bug fixes in the DMD front-end, I decided to experiment merging it into LDC.

The task wasn't so hard, just apply the patches, ignore changes to the back-end (mostly), resolve some conflicts and you're done!

Christian Kamm kindly helped me with a couple of doubts when resolving conflicts and I got commit access to the LDC repository in the way (thanks for the vote of confidence, even when LDC are very relaxed when giving commit access :).

However I found a changeset that was a little harder to merge: r251, which added support for appending dchar to a char[] (fixing bug 111, another long waited one). The problem was, 2 new runtime functions were added (_d_arrayappendcd and arrayappendwdarrayappendwd) but I didn't know how to tell the back-end about them.

Trying to compile Dil with the new LDC with the DMD 1.055 front-end, I discovered this change also added a regression. So I tried to fix those two issues before pushing my patches, but Christian told me I should push them first and fix the problems later. I really prefer the other way around, but I won't tell the LDC developers how to run the project :), so I did it [*].

Christian disabled the new feature later because Tango is still lacking the new runtime functions, so LDC can't do much about them yet. I filled a bug so this issue don't get lost.

I would be nice to have some feedback if you try the new merged front-end in LDC :)

[*]I'm sorry about the lame commit messages including the diffstat output, but I did the work using git and then exported the patches to mercurial and I didn't realize the import tool didn't remove the diffstat output.

D.NET is looking for developers

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 12- 20 21:39 (updated on 2009- 12- 20 21:44)
tagged .net, d,, dnet, en, mono - with 0 comment(s)

The D.NET project is looking for developers. Here is a small quote from the latest e-mail from Tim Matthews:

It is in a very alpha like state and this is just a callout for developers to work on this compiler. Not for anyone intending to immediately target the CLR with D.

D.NET is targeting D2 only for now and can access only to the .NET standard library (you can't use Phobos).


It looks like Time Matthews is now hosting the project here.

LDC uploaded to Debian

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 12- 03 16:57 (updated on 2009- 12- 03 16:57)
tagged d, debian, en, ldc - with 0 comment(s)

Finally, Debian's bug #508070 is closed! That means that LDC is officially in Debian now. The package is only in the experimental repositories for now, I hope it hits testing soon.

Thanks to Arthur Loiret for the packaging efforts!

Improved string imports

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 12- 01 19:38 (updated on 2009- 12- 01 19:38)
tagged d, en, import, patch, string import - with 0 comment(s)

D has a very nice capability of string imports. A string import let you read a file at compile time as a string, for example:

pragma(msg, import("hello.txt"));

Will print the contents of the file hello.txt when it's compiled, or it will fail to compile if hello.txt is not readable or the -J option is not used. The -J option is needed because of security reasons, otherwise compiling a program could end up reading any file in your filesystem (storing it in the binary and possibly violating your privacy). For example you could compile a program as root and run it as an unprivileged user thinking it can't possibly read some protected data, but that data could be read at compile-time, with root privileges.

Anyway, D ask you to use the -J option if you are doing string imports, which seems reasonable. What doesn't look so reasonable is that string imports can't access a file in a subdirectory. Let's say we have a file test.d in the current directory like this:

immutable s = import("data/hello.txt");

And in the current directory we have a subdirectory called data and a file hello.txt in it. This won't compile, ever (no matter what -J option you use). I think this is an unnecessary limitation, using -J. should work. I can see why this was done like that, what if you write:

immutable s = import("../hello.txt");

It looks like this shouldn't work, so we can ban .. from string imports, but what about this:

immutable s = import("data/../data/hello.txt");

This should work, it's a little convoluted but it should work. And what about symbolic links?

Well, I think this limitation can be relaxed (other people think that too, there is even a bug report for this), at least on POSIX-compatible OSs, because we can use the realpath() function to resolve the file. If you resolve both the -J directories and the resulting files, it's very easy to check if the string import file really belongs to a -J subdirectory or not.

This looks very trivial to implement, so I gave it a shot and posted a patch and a couple of test cases to that very same bug report :)

The patch is incomplete, though, because it's only tested on Linux and it lacks Windows support (I don't know how to do this on Windows and don't have an environment to test it). If you like this feature and you know Windows, please complete the patch, so it has better chances to make it in D2, you only have to implement the canonicalName() function. If you have other supported POSIX OS, please test the patch and report any problems.



by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 11- 30 02:02 (updated on 2009- 11- 30 02:02)
tagged d, dynamic, en, opdispatch, patch - with 0 comment(s)

From time to time, people suggested features to make easier to add some dynamic capabilities to D. One of the suggestions was adding a way to have dynamic members. This is specially useful for things like ORMs or RPCs, so you can do something like:

auto rpc = new RPC;;

And it get automatically translated to some sort of SQL query or RPC call, using some kind of introspection at runtime. To enable this, you can translate the former to something like:


There was even a patch for this feature, but Walter didn't payed much attention and ignore this feature until a couple of days ago, when he got bored and implement it himself, on its own way =P

I think this is a very bad policy, because it discourages people to contribute code. There is no much difference between suggesting a feature and implementing it providing a patch, unless you have a very good personal relationship with Walter. You almost never will have feedback on your patch, Walter prefers to implement things himself instead of giving you feedback. This way it's very hard for people wanting to contribute to learn about the code and on how Walter wants patches to be done; and this is what discourages contributions.

I won't write again about what are the problems in the D development model, I already done that without much success (except for Andrei, who is writing better commit messages now, thanks for that! =). I just wanted to point out another thing that Walter don't get about open-source projects.

Anyway, this post is about opDispatch(), the new way of doing dynamic dispatching. Walter proposed opDynamic(), which was wrong, because it's not really dynamic, it's completely static, but it enables dynamic dispatching with a little extra work. Fortunately Michel Fortin suggested opDispatch() which is a better name.

The thing is simple, if a method m() is not found, a call to opDispatch!("m")() is tried. Since this is a template call, its a compile-time feature, but you can easily do a dynamic lookup like this:

void opDispatch(string name)(int x)
    this.dispatch(name, x);

void dispatch(string name, int x)
    // dynamic lookup

I personally like this feature, we'll see how all this turns out.

Unintentional fall-through in D's switch statements

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 11- 20 23:34 (updated on 2009- 11- 20 23:34)
tagged d, en, fall-through, patch, switch - with 2 comment(s)

Removing switch fall-through from D's switch statement is something discussed since the early beginnings of D, there are discussions about it since 2001 and to the date [*]. If you don't know what I'm talking about, see this example:

switch (x) {
case A:
    i = x;
    // fall-through
case B:
    j = 2;
case C:
    i = x + 1;

If you read carefully the case B case A code, it doesn't include a break statement, so if x == A not only i = x will be executed, the code in case B will be executed too. This is perfectly valid code, introduced by C, but it tends to be very error prone and if you forget a break statement, the introduced bug can be very hard to track.

Fall-through if fairly rare, and it would make perfect sense to make it explicit. Several suggestions were made in this time to make fall-through explicit, but nothing materialized yet. Here are the most frequently suggested solutions:

  • Add a new syntax for non-fall-through switch statements, for example:

    switch (x) {
    case A {
        i = x;
    case B {
        j = 2;
    case C {
        i = x + 1;
  • Don't fall-through by default, use an explicit statement to ask for fall-through, for example:

    switch (x) {
    case A:
        i = x;
        goto case;
    case B:
        j = 2;
    case C:
        i = x + 1;

    Others suggested continue switch or fallthrough, but I think some of this suggestions were made before goto case was implemented.

A few minutes ago, Chad Joan has filled a bug with this issue, but with a patch attached 8-). He opted for an intermediate solution, more in the lines of new switch syntax. He defines 2 case statements: case X: and case X!: (note the !). The former doesn't allow implicit fall-through and the latter does. This is the example in the bug report:

switch (i)
    case 1!: // Intent to use fall through behavior.
        x = 3;
    case 2!: // It's OK to decide to not actually fall through.
        x = 4;

    case 3,4,5:
        x = 5;

    case 6: // Error: You either forgot a break; or need to use !: instead of :
    case 7: // Fine, ends with goto case.
        goto case 1;

    case 8:
        x = 6; // Error: break; must be the last statement for case 8.

While I really think the best solution is to just make a goto case required if you want to fall-through [†], it's great to have a patch for a solution. Thanks Chad! =)


This is the latest discussion about this, started by Chad Joan (I guess):

Here is the last minute announcement of the patch:

And here are some links for older switch statement related discussions:

[†]I find it more readable and with better locality, to know if something fall-through or not I just have to read the code sequentially without remembering which kind of case I'm in. And I think cases without any statements should be allowed too, I wonder how this works with case range statements.

Annotations, properties and safety are coming to D

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 11- 13 23:34 (updated on 2009- 11- 14 15:45)
tagged annotation, d, en, property, safe, trusted - with 0 comment(s)

Two days ago, the documentation of functions were updated with some interesting revelations...

After a lot of discussion about properties needing improvements [*], it seems like they are now officially implemented using the annotations, which seems to be official too now, after some more discussion [†].

Annotations will be used for another longly discussed feature, a safe [‡] subset of the language. At first it was thought as some kind of separate language, activated through a flag -safe (which is already in the DMD compiler but has no effect AFAIK), but after the discussion it seems that it will be part of the main language, being able to mark parts of the code as safe or trusted (unmarked functions are unsafe).

Please take a look at the discussions for the details but here are some examples:


They are prefixed with @ and are similar to attributes (not class attributes; static, final, private, etc. see the specs for details).

For example:

@ann1 {
    // things with annotation ann1

@ann2 something; // one thing with annotation ann2

    // From now on, everything has the ann3 annotation

For now, only the compiler can define annotations, but maybe in the future the user can do it too and access to them using some reflection. Time will tell, as usual, Walter is completely silent about this.


Properties are now marked with the @property annotation (maybe a shorter annotation would be better? Like @prop). Here is an example:

class Foo {
    @property int bar() { ... } // read-only
    @property { // read-write
        char baz() { ... }
        void baz(char x) { ...}


Now functions can be marked with the annotations @safe or @trusted. Unmarked functions are unsafe. Safe functions can only use a subset of the language that it's safe by some definition (memory safe and no undefined behavior are probably the most accepted definition). Here is a list of things a safe function can't do:

  • No casting from a pointer type to any type other than void*.
  • No casting from any non-pointer type to a pointer type.
  • No modification of pointer values.
  • Cannot access unions that have pointers or references overlapping with other types.
  • Calling any unsafe functions.
  • No catching of exceptions that are not derived from class Exception.
  • No inline assembler.
  • No explicit casting of mutable objects to immutable.
  • No explicit casting of immutable objects to mutable.
  • No explicit casting of thread local objects to shared.
  • No explicit casting of shared objects to thread local.
  • No taking the address of a local variable or function parameter.
  • Cannot access __gshared variables.

There is some discussion about bound-checking being active in safe functions even when the -release compiler flag is used.

Trusted functions are not checked by the compiler, but trusted to be safe (should be manually verified by the writer of the function), and can use unsafe code and call unsafe functions.


Here are some links to the property discussions:


Discussion about annotations:


Discussions about SafeD:

Go nuts

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 11- 11 12:14 (updated on 2009- 11- 11 18:48)
tagged compiler, d, en, go, google, language, software - with 11 comment(s)

I guess everybody (at least everybody with some interest in system programming languages) should know by now about the existence of Go, the new system programming language released yesterday by Google.

I think this has a huge impact in D, because it's trying to fill the same hole: a modern high-performance language that doesn't suck (hello C++!). They have a common goal too: be practical for business (they are designed to get things done and easy of implementation). But there are still very big differences about both languages. Here is a small summary (from my subjective point of view after reading some of the Go documentation):

Go D
Feels more like a high-level high- performance programming language than a real system programming language (no asm, no pointer arithmetics). Feels more like a real close to the metal system programming language.
Extremely simple, with just a very small set of core features. Much more complex, but very powerful and featureful.
Can call C code but can't be called from C code. Interacts very well with C in both directions (version 2 can partially interact with C++ too).
Feels like a very well thought, cohesive programming language. Feels as a bag of features that grew in the wild.
FLOSS reference implementation. Looks very FLOSS friendly, with proper code review, VCS, mailing lists, etc. Reference implementation is not FLOSS. Not very FLOSS friendly (it's just starting to open up a little but it's a slow and hard process).
Supported by a huge corporation, I expect a very large community in very short time. Supported by a very small group of volunteers, small community.

I really like the simplicity of Go, but I have my doubts about how limiting it could be in practice (it doesn't even have exceptions!). I have to try it to see if I will really miss the features of more complex programming languages (like templates / generics, exceptions, inheritance, etc.), or if it will just work.

I have the feeling that things will just work, and things missing in Go will not be a problem when doing actual work. Maybe it's because I had a very similar feeling about Python (indentation matters? Having to pass self explicitly to methods? No ++? No assignment in if, while, etc.? I hated all this things at first, but after understanding the rationale and using then in real work, it works great!). Or maybe is because there are is extremely capable people behind it, like Ken Thomson and Rob Pike (that's why you can see all sort of references to Plan 9 in Go :), people that knows about designing operating systems and languages, a good combination for designing a system programming language ;)

You never know with this things, Go could die in the dark or become a very popular programming language, only time will tell (but since Google is behind it, I guess the later is more likely).

DMD frontend 1.051 merged in LDC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 11- 07 15:08 (updated on 2009- 11- 07 15:08)
tagged compiler, d, dmd, en, ldc, merge, software - with 0 comment(s)

After 5 or 6 DMD versions with important regressions, LDC has just been updated to DMD's frontend 1.051. This brings a lot of bug fixes to the LDC world (DStress results are looking good! ;).

Lots of thanks to LDC guy for merging the new frontend =)

Patch to make D's GC partially precise

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 11- 06 11:43 (updated on 2009- 11- 06 20:09)
tagged d, en, gc, precise - with 0 comment(s)

David Simcha has announced a couple of weeks ago that he wanted to work on making the D's GC partially precise (only the heap). I was planning to do it myself eventually because it looked like something doable with not much work that could yield a big performance gain, and particularly useful to avoid memory leaks due to false pointers (which can keep huge blocks of data artificially alive). But I didn't had the time and I had other priorities.

Anyway, after some discussion, he finally announced he got the patch, which he added as a bug report. The patch is being analyzed for inclusion, but the main problem now is that it is not integrated with the new operator, so if you want to get precise heap scanning, you have to use a custom function to allocate (that creates a map of the type to allocate at compile-time to pass the information about the location of the pointers to the GC).

I'm glad David could work on this and I hope this can be included in D2, since is a long awaited feature of the GC.


David Schima has been just added to the list of Phobos developers. Maybe he can integrate his work on associative arrays too.

The D Programming Language

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 29 12:37 (updated on 2009- 10- 29 12:37)
tagged andrei alexandrescu, book, d, en, the d programming language - with 1 comment(s)

The version 2.0 of D will be released in sync with the classic book titled after the language, in this case, The D Programming Language, written by the Andrei Alexandrescu. You can follow the progress of the book looking at his home page, where a words and pages counter and a short term objective are regularly updated.

He posted a little introductory excerpt of the book a while ago and yesterday he published a larger excerpt, the whole chapter 4 about arrays, associative arrays and strings.

If you don't know much about D, it could be a good way to take a peek.

LLVM 2.6

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 24 18:30 (updated on 2009- 10- 24 18:30)
tagged d, en, llvm, release, software - with 0 comment(s)

Just in case you're not that well informed, Chris Lattner has just announced the release of LLVM 2.6. Enjoy!

KLEE, automatically generating tests that achieve high coverage

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 20 11:20 (updated on 2009- 10- 20 11:20)
tagged coverage, d, en, klee, llvm, software, test, vm - with 2 comment(s)

This is the abstract of the paper describing KLEE, a new LLVM sub-project announced with the upcoming 2.6 release:

We present a new symbolic execution tool, KLEE, capable of automatically generating tests that achieve high coverage on a diverse set of complex and environmentally-intensive programs. We used KLEE to thoroughly check all 89 stand-alone programs in the GNU COREUTILS utility suite, which form the core user-level environment installed on millions of Unix systems, and arguably are the single most heavily tested set of open-source programs in existence. KLEE-generated tests achieve high line coverage — on average over 90% per tool (median: over 94%) — and significantly beat the coverage of the developers' own hand-written test suites. When we did the same for 75 equivalent tools in the BUSYBOX embedded system suite, results were even better, including 100% coverage on 31 of them. We also used KLEE as a bug finding tool, applying it to 452 applications (over 430K total lines of code), where it found 56 serious bugs, including three in COREUTILS that had been missed for over 15 years. Finally, we used KLEE to cross-check purportedly identical BUSYBOX and COREUTILS utilities, finding functional correctness errors and a myriad of inconsistencies.

I have to try this...

pybugz, a python and command line interface to Bugzilla

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 16 11:14 (updated on 2009- 10- 16 11:14)
tagged bugzilla, cli, d, en, pybugz, python, software - with 0 comment(s)

Tired of the clumsy Bugzilla web interface? Meet pybugz, a command line interface for Bugzilla.

An example workflow from the README file:

$ bugz search "version bump" --assigned

 * Using ..
 * Searching for "version bump" ordered by "number"
 101968 liquidx net-im/msnlib version bump
 125468 liquidx version bump for dev-libs/g-wrap-1.9.6
 130608 liquidx app-dicts/stardict version bump: 2.4.7

$ bugz get 101968

 * Using ..
 * Getting bug 130608 ..
Title : app-dicts/stardict version bump: 2.4.7
Assignee :
Reported : 2006-04-20 07:36 PST
Updated : 2006-05-29 23:18:12 PST
Status : NEW
Severity : enhancement
Reporter :
Priority : P2
Comments : 3
Attachments : 1

[ATTACH] [87844] [stardict 2.4.7 ebuild]

[Comment #1] : 2006-04-20 07:36 PST

$ bugz attachment 87844

 * Using ..
 * Getting attachment 87844
 * Saving attachment: "stardict-2.4.7.ebuild"

$ bugz modify 130608 --fixed -c "Thanks for the ebuild. Committed to

D and open development model

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 15 17:09 (updated on 2009- 10- 15 17:09)
tagged compiler, d, development model, dmd, druntime, en, phobos, software - with 6 comment(s)


Long post ahead =)

I'm very glad that yesterday DMD had the first releases (DMD 1.050 and DMD 2.035) with a decent revision history. It took some time to Walter Bright to understand how the open source development model works, and I think he still has a lot more to learn, but I have some hope now about the future of D.

Not much time ago, neither Phobos, DMD nor Druntime had revision control. Druntime didn't even exist, making D 1 split in two because of the Phobos vs Tango dichotomy. DMD back-end sources were not available either, and Walter Bright was the only person writing stuff (sometimes not because people didn't want to, but because he was too anal retentive to let them ;). It was almost impossible to make patches back then (your only chance was hacking GDC, which is pretty hard).

Now I can say that DMD, Phobos and Druntime have full source availability (DMD back-end is not free/libre though), almost all the parts of DMD have the sources published under a source control system. The core team has been expanded and even when Walter Bright is still in charge, at least 3 developers are now very committed to D: Andrei Alexandrescu (in charge of Phobos), Sean Kelly (in charge of Druntime) and Don Clugston (squashing DMD bugs at full speed, specially in the back-end). Other people are contributing patches in a regular basis. There were about 72 patches submitted to bugzilla before DMD was distributed with full source (72 patches in ~10 years) , since then, 206 patches were submitted (that is, 206 patches in less than 8 months).

But even with this great improvement, there is much left to do yet (and I'm talking only about the development model). This is a small list of what I think it's necessary to keep moving to a more open development model:


The release process should be improved. Me and other people are suggesting release candidates. This will allow people to test the new releases to find any regressions. As things are now, releases are not much different from a nightly build, except that you don't have one available every night :). People get very frustrated when downloading a new version of the compiler and things stop working, and this holds back front-end updates in other compilers, like LDC (which is frozen at 1.045 because of the regressions found in the next 5 versions).

I think Walter Bright is suffering from premature releasing too. Releases comes from nowhere, when nobody expects them. Nobody knows when a new compiler version will be released. I think that hurts the language reliability.

I think the releases should be more predictable. A release schedule (even when not very accurate, like in many other open source projects) gives you some peace of mind.

Peer review

Even when commits are fairly small now in DMD, I think they are far from ideal. Is very common to see unrelated changes in a commit (the classic example is the compiler version number being bumped in an bug fix). See revision 214 for example: the compiler version is bumped and there are some changes to the new JSON output, totally unrelated to bug 3401, which is supposed to fix; or revision 213, which announces the release of DMD 1.050 and DMD 2.035, introducing a bunch of changes that who knows what are supposed to do (well, they look like the introduction of the new type T[new], but that's not even documented in the release changelog :S). This is bad for several reasons:

  • Reviewing a patch with unrelated changes is hard.
  • If you want to fold in a individual patch (let's say, LDC guys want to fold a bug fix), you have a lot of junk to take care of.
  • If you want to do some sort of bisection to find a regression, you still have to figure out which is the group of related changes that introduced the regression.

I'm sure there are more...

Commit messages lacks a good description of the problem and the solution. Most commit messages in DMD are "bugzilla N". You have to go to the bugzilla bug to know what's all about. For example, Don's patches usually comes with very good and juicy information about the bug causes and why the patch fixes it (see an example). That is a good commit message. You can learn a lot about the code by reading well commented patches, which can lead to more contributions in the future.

Commits in Phobos can be even worse. The commits with a message "bugzilla N" are usually the good ones. There are 56 commits that have "minor" as the commit message. Yes, just "minor". That's pretty useless, it's very hard to review a patch when you don't know what is supposed to do. Commit messages are the base of peer reviewing, and peer reviewing is the base for high quality code.

So I think that D developers should focus a lot more in commit message. I know it can sound silly at first, but I think I would be a huge gain with too little effort.

Besides this, commits should be mailed to a newsgroup or mailing list to easy peer review. Now it's a little hard to make comments about a commit, you have to post the comment in the D newsgroup or make the comment by personal e-mail to the author. The former is not that bad but it's not easy to include context and people reading the comment will probably have to open a browser and search for the commented commit. This clearly make peer reviewing more difficult when the ideal would be to encourage it. The private mail is simply wrong because other people can't see the comments.

Source control and versioning

This one is tightly related to the previous two topics. Using a good DVCS can make help a lot too. Subversion has a lot of problems with branching, which makes releases harder too (as having a branch for each release is very painful). Is bad for commit messages too, because there is no real difference in branches and directories, so know every commit is duplicated (both changes for DMD 1 and 2 are included). It's not easy to cherry-pick single commits either, and you can't fix you commits if you messed up, which leads to a lot of commits of the style "Woops! Fix the typo in the previous commit.".

I'm sure both the release process and peer reviewing can be greatly improved by using a better DVCS.

Easy branching can also lead to a more fast evolving and reliable language. Yes, both are possible with branches. Now there are 2 branches: stable (D1) and experimental (D2). D1 is almost frozen and people is seeing less and less interest on it as it goes old, and D2 is too unstable for real use. Having some intermediate can be really helpful. For example, it has been announced that the concurrency model proposed by Bartosz Milewski will be not part of D2 because there is not enough time to implement it, since D2 should be release fairly soon as Andrei Alexandrescu is writing a book that has a deadline and the language has to be finalized by the time the book is published.

So concurrency (as AST macros) are delayed to D3. D2 is more than 2 years old, so one should expect that D3 will be not available in less than 5 years from now (assuming D2 would take 2.5 years and D3 would take the same). This might be too much time.

I think the language should adopt a model closer to Python, where a minor language version (with backward compatible improvements) is release every 1 ~ 1.5 years. Last mayor version took about 8 years, but considering how many new features Python included in minor versions that's not a big issue. The last mayor version was mostly a clean up of old stuff/nasty stuff, not huge changes to the language.


I think the DMD back-end should have a better license. Personal use is simply not enough for a reference implementation of a language that wants to hit mainstream. If you plan to do business with it, not being able to patch the compiler if you need to and distribute it is not an option.

This is for the sake of DMD only, because other compilers (like LDC and GDC) are fully free/libre.


Some of the things I mention are really hard to change, as they modify how people work and imply learning new tools. But other are fairly easy, and can be done progressively (like providing release candidates and improving commits and commit messages).

I hope Walter Bright & Co. keep walking the openness road =)

LLVM developer meeting videos available

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 15 10:55 (updated on 2009- 10- 15 13:35)
tagged clang, d, en, llvm, llvm developer meeting, video - with 0 comment(s)

Chris Lattner announced that the videos for the last LLVM developer meeting are now available. They are usually very interesting, so I'd recommend to watch them if you have some time.


Big WTF and many anti-cool-points for Apple:

On Oct 15, 2009, at 8:29 AM, Anton Korobeynikov wrote:
> I'm a bit curious: is there any reason why are other slides / videos
> not available (it seems that the ones missing are from Apple folks)?

Unfortunately, we found out at the last minute that Apple has a rule
which prevents its engineers from giving video taped talks or
distributing slides.  We will hold onto the video and slide assets in
case this rule changes in the future.


Fragment from a response to the announcement.

Mutt patched with NNTP support for Debian (and friends)

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 14 01:01 (updated on 2009- 10- 14 01:01)
tagged d, debian, en, mutt, nntp, patch, ubuntu, vsevolod volkov - with 2 comment(s)

Did you ever wanted Mutt with NNTP support packed up for your Debian (or Debian-ish) box, but you are too lazy to do it yourself? Did you even tried to report a bug so the patch can be applied to the official Debian package but the maintainers told you they wont do it?

If so, this is a great day for you, because I did it and I'm giving it away with no charge in this one time only opportunity!!! =P

Seriously, I can understand why the maintainers don't want to support it officially, it a big patch and can be some work to fold it in. So I did it myself, and it turned out it's wasn't that bad.

I adjusted the patch maintained by Vsevolod Volkov to work on top of all the other patches included in the mutt-patched Debian package (the only conflicting patch is the sidebar patch and some files that doesn't exist because the patch should be applied after autotools files are generated and Debian apply the patches before that) and built the package using the latest Debian source (1.5.20-4).

You can find the source package and the binary packages for Debian unstable i386 here. You can find there the modified NNTP patch too.

If you have Ubuntu or other Debian based distribution, you can compile the binary package by downloading the files mutt_1.5.20-4luca1.diff.gz, mutt_1.5.20-4luca1.dsc and mutt_1.5.20.orig.tar.gz, then run:

$ sudo apt-get build-dep mutt
$ dpkg-source -x mutt_1.5.20-4luca1.dsc
$ cd mutt-1.5.20
$ dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot
$ cd ..
$ sudo dpkg -i mutt_1.5.20-4luca1_i386.deb \

Now you can enjoy reading the D newsgroups and your favourite mailing lists via Gmane with Mutt without leaving the beauty of your packaging system. No need to thank me, I'm glad to be helpful ;)

Link Time Optimization

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 10 15:34 (updated on 2009- 10- 10 15:34)
tagged binutils, d, en, gcc, gdc, gold, ldc, llvm, lto - with 0 comment(s)

The upcoming LLVM 2.6 will include a plug-in for Gold to implement Link Time Optimization (LTO) using LLVM's LibLTO. There is a similar project for GCC, merged into the main trunk about a week ago. It will be available in GCC 4.5.

This is all fairly new, and will be not enabled by default in LLVM (I don't know what about GCC), but it will add a lot of new optimization oportunities in the future.

So people using LDC and GDC will probably be able to enjoy LTO in a near future =)

Stats for the basic GC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 08 20:08 (updated on 2009- 10- 08 20:08)
tagged basic, benchmark, d, dgc, dgcbench, en, gc, statistics - with 0 comment(s)

Here are some graphs made from my D GC benchmarks using the Tango (0.99.8) basic collector, similar to the naive ones but using histograms for allocations (time and space):

big_arrays rnd_data rnd_data_2 split tree

Some comments:

  • The Wasted space is the Uncommitted space (since the basic GC doesn't track the real size of the stored object).
  • The Stop-the-world time is the time all the threads are stopped, which is almost the same as the time spent scanning the heap.
  • The Collect time is the total time spent in a collection. The difference with the Stop-the-world time is almost the same as the time spent in the sweep phase, which is done after the threads have being resumed (except the thread that triggered the collection).

There are a few observations to do about the results:

  • The stop the world time varies a lot. There are tests where is almost unnoticeable (tree), tests where it's almost equals to the total collection time (rnd_data, rnd_data_2, split) and test where it's in the middle (big_arrays). I can't see a pattern though (like heap occupancy).
  • There are tests where it seems that collections are triggered for no reason; there is plenty of free space when it's triggered (tree and big_arrays). I haven't investigated this yet, so if you can see a reason, please let me know.

GDC resurrection

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 05 11:31 (updated on 2009- 10- 05 11:31)
tagged compiler, d, en, floss, gcc, gdc, software - with 0 comment(s)

About a month ago, the GDC newsgroup started to get some activity when Michael P. and Vincenzo Ampolo started working on updating GCD. Yesterday they announced that they successfully merged the DMD frontend 1.038 and 2.015, and a new repository for GDC. They will be hanging on #d.gdc if you have any questions or want to help out.

So great news for the D ecosystem! Kudos for this two brave men! =)

DGC page is back

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 10- 02 13:17 (updated on 2009- 10- 02 13:17)
tagged d, dgc, en, self, web - with 0 comment(s)

I've migrated the wiki pages about DGC from Redmine to Sphinx.

Life in hell

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 09- 06 18:24 (updated on 2009- 09- 06 18:24)
tagged asm, benchmark, d, debug, dgc, dgcbench, dil, en, gc, gdb, naive, statistics - with 0 comment(s)


Long post ahead =)

As I said before, debug is hell in D, at least if you're using a compiler that doesn't write proper debug information and you're writing a garbage collector. But you have to do it when things go wrong. And things usually go wrong.

This is a small chronicle about how I managed to debug a weird problem =)

I had my Naive GC working and getting good stats with some small micro-benchmarks, so I said let's benchmark something real. There is almost no real D applications out there, suitable for an automated GC benchmark at least [1]. Dil looked like a good candidate so I said let's use Dil in the benchmark suite!.

And I did. But Dil didn't work as I expected. Even when running it without arguments, in which case a nice help message like this should be displayed:

dil v1.000
Copyright (c) 2007-2008 by Aziz Köksal. Licensed under the GPL3.

  help (?)
  compile (c)
  ddoc (d)
  highlight (hl)
  importgraph (igraph)
  python (py)
  settings (set)
  statistics (stats)
  tokenize (tok)
  translate (trans)

Type 'dil help <subcommand>' for more help on a particular subcommand.

Compiled with Digital Mars D v1.041 on Sat Aug 29 18:04:34 2009.

I got this instead:

Generate an XML or HTML document from a D source file.
  dil gen file.d [Options]

  --syntax         : generate tags for the syntax tree
  --xml            : use XML format (default)
  --html           : use HTML format

  dil gen Parser.d --html --syntax > Parser.html

Which it isn't even a valid Dil command (it looks like a dead string in some data/lang_??.d files).

I ran Valgrind on it and detected a suspicious invalid read of size 4 when reading the last byte of a 13 bytes long class instance. I thought maybe the compiler was assuming the GC allocated block with size multiples of the word size, so I made gc_malloc() allocate multiples of the word size, but nothing happened. Then I thought that maybe the memory blocks should be aligned to a multiple of a word, so I made gc_malloc() align the data portion of the cell to a multiple of a word, but nothing.

Since Valgrind only detected that problem, which was at the static constructor of the module, I though it might be a Tango bug, so I reported it. But it wasn't Tango's fault. The invalid read looked like a DMD 1.042 bug; DMD 1.041 didn't have that problem, but my collector still failed to run Dil. So I was back to zero.

I tried the Tango stub collector and it worked, so I tried mine disabling the collections, and it worked too. So finally I could narrow the problem to the collection phase (which isn't much, but it's something). The first thing I could think it could be wrong in a collection is that cells still in use are swept as if they were unused, so I then disabled the sweep phase only, and it kept working.

So, everything pointer to prematurely freed cells. But why my collector was freeing cells prematurely being so, so simple? I reviewed the code a couple of times and couldn't find anything evidently wrong. To confirm my theory and with the hope of getting some extra info, I decided to write a weird pattern in the swept cells and then check if that pattern was intact when giving them back to the mutator (the basic GC can do that too if compiled with -debug=MEMSTOMP). That would confirm that the swept memory were still in use. And it did.

The I tried this modified GC with memory stomp with my micro-benchmarks and they worked just fine, so I started to doubt again that it was my GC's problem. But since those benchmarks didn't use much of the GC API, I thought maybe Dil was using some strange features of making some assumptions that were only true for the current implementation, so I asked Aziz Köksal (Dil creator) and he pointed me to some portion of code that allocated memory from the C heap, overriding the operators new and delete for the Token struct. There is a bug in Dil there, because apparently that struct store pointers to the GC heap but it's not registered as a root, so it looks like a good candidate.

So I commented out the overridden new and delete operators, so the regular GC-based operators were used. But I still got nothing, the wrong help message were printed again. Then I saw that Dil was manually freeing memory using delete. So I decided to make my gc_free() implementation a NOP to let the GC take over of all memory management... And finally all [2] worked out fine! =)

So, the problem should be either my gc_free() implementation (which is really simple) or a Dil bug.

In order to get some extra information on where the problem is, I changed the Cell.alloc() implementation to use mmap to allocate whole pages, one for the cell's header, and one or more for the cell data. This way, could easily mprotect the cell data when the cell was swept (and un-mprotecting them when they were give back to the program) in order to make Dil segfault exactly where the freed memory was used.

I ran Dil using strace and this is what happened:

 (a)  write(1, "Cell.alloc(80)\n", 15)        = 15
 (b)  mmap2(NULL, 8192, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, ...) = 0xb7a2e000
 (c)  mprotect(0xb7911000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
      mprotect(0xb7913000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a2b000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a2d000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
 (d)  mprotect(0xb7a2f000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a43000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a3d000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a6b000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
 (e)  mprotect(0xb7a73000, 4096, PROT_NONE)   = 0
 (f)  mprotect(0xb7a73000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a6b000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
      mprotect(0xb7a3f000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
 (g)  mprotect(0xb7a3d000, 4096, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE) = 0
      --- SIGSEGV (Segmentation fault) @ 0 (0) ---
      +++ killed by SIGSEGV (core dumped) +++

(a) is a debug print, showing the size of the gc_malloc() call that got the address 0xb7a2e000. The mmap (b) is 8192 bytes in size because I allocate a page for the cell header (for internal GC information) and another separated page for the data (so I can only mprotect the data page and keep the header page read/write); that allocation asked for a new fresh couple of pages to the OS (that's why you see a mmap).

From (c) to (e) you can see a sequence of several mprotect, that are cells being swept by a collection (protecting the cells against read/write so if the mutator tries to touch them, a SIGSEGV is on the way).

From (f) to (g) you can see another sequence of mprotect, this time giving the mutator permission to touch that pages, so that's gc_malloc() recycling the recently swept cells.

(d) shows the cell allocated in (a) being swept. Why the address is not the same (this time is 0xb7a2f000 instead of 0xb7a2e000)? Because, as you remember, the first page is used for the cell header, so the data should be at 0xb7a2e000 + 4096, which is exactly 0xb7a2f000, the start of the memory block that the sweep phase (and gc_free() for that matter) was protecting.

Finally we see the program getting his nice SIGSEGV and dumping a nice little core for touching what it shouldn't.

Then I opened the core with GDB and did something like this [3]:

Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
(a)  #0  0x08079a96 in getDispatchFunction ()
     (gdb) print $pc
(b)  $1 = (void (*)()) 0x8079a96 <getDispatchFunction+30>
     (gdb) disassemble $pc
     Dump of assembler code for function
     0x08079a78 <getDispatchFunction+0>:  push   %ebp
     0x08079a79 <getDispatchFunction+1>:  mov    %esp,%ebp
     0x08079a7b <getDispatchFunction+3>:  sub    $0x8,%esp
     0x08079a7e <getDispatchFunction+6>:  push   %ebx
     0x08079a7f <getDispatchFunction+7>:  push   %esi
     0x08079a80 <getDispatchFunction+8>:  mov    %eax,-0x4(%ebp)
     0x08079a83 <getDispatchFunction+11>: mov    -0x4(%ebp),%eax
     0x08079a86 <getDispatchFunction+14>: call   0x80bccb4 <objectInvariant>
     0x08079a8b <getDispatchFunction+19>: push   $0xb9
     0x08079a90 <getDispatchFunction+24>: mov    0x8(%ebp),%edx
     0x08079a93 <getDispatchFunction+27>: add    $0xa,%edx
(c)  0x08079a96 <getDispatchFunction+30>: movzwl (%edx),%ecx
     (gdb) print /x $edx
(d)  $2 = 0xb7a2f000

First, in (a), GDB tells where the program received the SIGSEGV. In (b) I print the program counter register to get a more readable hint on where the program segfaulted. It was at getDispatchFunction+30, so I disassemble that function to see that the SIGSEGV was received when doing movzwl (%edx),%ecx (moving the contents of the ECX register to the memory pointed to by the address in the register EDX) at (c). In (d) I get the value of the EDX register, and it's 0xb7a2f000. Do you remember that value? Is the data address for the cell at 0xb7a2e000, the one that was recently swept (and mprotected). That's not good for business.

This is the offending method (at dil/src/ast/Visitor.d):

Node function(Visitor, Node) getDispatchFunction()(Node n)
    return cast(Node function(Visitor, Node))dispatch_vtable[n.kind];

Since I can't get any useful information from GDB (I can't even get a proper backtrace [4]) except for the mangled function name (because the wrong debug information produced by DMD), I had to split that function into smaller functions to confirm that the problem was in n.kind (I guess I could figure that out by eating some more assembly, but I'm not that well trained at eating asm yet =). This means that the Node instance n is the one prematurely freed.

This is particularly weird, because it looks like the node is being swept, not prematurely freed using an explicit delete. So it seems like the GC is missing some roots (or there are non-aligned pointers or weird stuff like that). The fact that this works fine with the Tango basic collector is intriguing too. One thing I can come up with to explain why it works in the basic collector is because it makes a lot less collections than the naive GC (the latter is really lame =). So maybe the rootless object becomes really free before the basic collector has a chance to run a collection and because of that the problem is never detected.

I spent over 10 days now investigating this issue (of course this is not near a full-time job for me so I can only dedicate a couple of days a week to this =), and I still can't find a clear cause for this problem, but I'm a little inclined towards a Dil bug, so I reported one =). So we'll see how this evolves; for now I'll just make gc_free() a NOP to continue my testing...

[1]Please let me know if you have any working, real, Tango-based D application suitable for GC benchmarks (i.e., using the GC and easily scriptable to run it automatically).
[2]all being running Dil without arguments to get the right help message =)
[3]I have shortened the name of the functions because they were huge, cryptic, mangled names =). The real name of getDispatchFunction is _D3dil3ast7Visitor7Visitor25__T19getDispatchFunctionZ19getDispatchFunctionMFC3dil3ast4Node4NodeZPFC3dil3ast7Visitor7VisitorC3dil3ast4Node4NodeZC3dil3ast4Node4Node (is not much better when demangled: class dil.ast.Node.Node function(class dil.ast.Visitor.Visitor, class dil.ast.Node.Node)* dil.ast.Visitor.Visitor.getDispatchFunction!().getDispatchFunction(class dil.ast.Node.Node) =). The real name of objectInvariant is D9invariant12_d_invariantFC6ObjectZv and has no demagled name that I know of, but I guessed is the Object class invariant.

Here is what I get from GDB:

(gdb) bt
#0  0x08079a96 in getDispatchFunction ()
#1  0xb78d5000 in ?? ()
#2  0xb789d000 in ?? ()
Backtrace stopped: previous frame inner to this frame (corrupt stack?)

(function name unmangled and shortened for readbility)

Allocations graphs

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 08- 26 21:54 (updated on 2009- 08- 26 21:54)
tagged allocation, benchmark, d, dgc, dgcbench, en, gc, graph, naive, statistics - with 0 comment(s)

Here are a set of improved statistics graphs, now including allocation statistics. All the data is plotted together and using the same timeline to ease the analysis and comparison.

Again, all graphs (as the graph title says), are taken using the Naive GC (stats code still not public yet :) and you can find the code for it in my D GC benchmark repository.

This time the (big) graphs are in EPS format because I could render them in PNG as big as I wanted and I didn't had the time to fix that =S

big_arrays rnd_data rnd_data_2 shootout_binarytrees split startup tree

The graphs shows the same as in the previous post with the addition of allocation time (how long it took to perform the allocation) and space (how many memory has been requested), which are rendered in the same graph, and an histogram of cell sizes. The histogram differentiates cells with and without the NO_SCAN bit, which might be useful in terms on seeing how bad the effect of false positives could be.

You can easily see how allocation time peeks match allocations that triggered a collection for example, and how bad can it be the effect of false positives, even when almost all the heap (99.99%) has the NO_SCAN bit (see rnd_data_2).


by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 08- 18 00:26 (updated on 2009- 08- 18 00:26)
tagged benchmark, collection, d, dgc, dgcbench, en, gc, graph, naive, statistics - with 0 comment(s)

It's been exactly 3 months since the last post. I spent the last months writing my thesis document (in Spanish), working, and being unproductive because of the lack of inspiration =)

But in the last couple of days I decided to go back to the code, and finish the statistics gathering in the Naive GC (the new code is not published yet because it needs some polishing). Here are some nice graphs from my little D GC benchmark:

big_arrays rnd_data rnd_data_2 shootout_binarytrees split startup tree

The graphs shows the space and time costs for each collection in the programs life. The collection time is divided in the time spent in the malloc() that triggered the collection, the time spent in the collection itself, and the time the world has to be stopped (meaning the time all the threads were paused because of the collection). The space is measured before and after the collection, and the total memory consumed by the program is divided in 4 areas: used space, free space, wasted space (space that the user can't use but it's not used by the collector either) and overhead (space used by the collector itself).

As you can see, the naive collector pretty much sucks, specially for periods of lots of allocation (since it just allocated what it's asked in the gc_malloc() call if the collection failed).

The next step is to modify the Tango's Basic collector to gather the same data and see how things are going with it.

Naive GC fixes

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 05- 17 19:09 (updated on 2009- 05- 17 19:09)
tagged d, dgc, en, gc, ldc, naive, patch, statistics, tango - with 0 comment(s)

I haven't been posting very often lately because I decided to spend some time writing my thesis document (in Spanish), which was way behind my current status, encouraged by my code-wise bad weekend =P.

Alberto Bertogli was kind enough to review my Naive GC implementation and sent me some patches, improving the documentation (amending my tarzanesque English =) and fixing a couple of (nasty) bugs [1] [2].

I'm starting to go back to the code, being that LDC is very close to a new release and things are starting to settle a little, so I hope I can finish the statistics gathering soon.

Debug is hell

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 05- 04 00:24 (updated on 2009- 05- 04 00:24)
tagged d, debug, dgc, dmd, en, gold, ldc, parental advisory, rant, tango - with 8 comment(s)


Rant ahead.

If Matt Groeing would ever written a garbage collector I'm sure he would made a book in the Life in Hell series called Debug is Hell.

You can't rely on anything: unit tests are useless, they depend on your code to run and you can't get a decent backtrace ever using a debugger (the runtime calls seems to hidden to the debugger). I don't know if the last one is a compiler issue (I'm using DMD right now because my LDC copy broken =( ).

Add that to the fact that GNU Gold doesn't work, DMD doesn't work, Tango doesn't work [*] and LDC doesn't work, and that it's already hard to debug in D because most of the mainstream tools (gdb, binutils, valgrind) don't support the language (can't demangle D symbols for instance) and you end up with a very hostile environment to work with.

Anyway, it was a very unproductive weekend, my statistics gathering code seems to have some nasty bug and I'm not being able to find it.

PS: I want to apologize in advance to the developers of GNU Gold, DMD, Tango and LDC because they make great software, much less crappier than mine (well, to be honest I'm not so sure about DMD ;-P), it's just a bad weekend. Thank you for your hard work, guys =)

[*]Tango trunk is supposed to be broken for Linux

Statistics, benchmark suite and future plans

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 05- 01 22:43 (updated on 2009- 05- 01 22:43)
tagged benchmark, d, dgc, en, plan, statistics, todo - with 4 comment(s)

I'm starting to build a benchmark suite for D. My benchmarks and programs request was a total failure (only Leonardo Maffi offered me a small trivial GC benchmark) so I have to find my own way.

This is a relative hard task, I went through dsource searching for real D programs (written using Tango, I finally desisted in making Phobos work in LDC because it would be a very time consuming task) and had no much luck either. Most of the stuff there are libraries, the few programs are: not suitable for an automated benchmark suite (like games), abandoned or work with Phobos.

I found only 2 candidates:

I just tried dack for now (I tried MiniD a while ago but had some compilation errors, I have to try again). Web-GMUI seems like a nice maintained candidate too, but being a client to monitor other BitTorrent clients, seems a little hard to use in automated benchmarks.

For a better usage of the benchmark suite, I'm adding some statistics gathering to my Naive GC implementation, and I will add that too to the Tango basic GC implementation. I will collect this data for each and every collection:

  • Collection time
  • Stop-the-world time (time all the threads were suspended)
  • Current thread suspension time (this is the same as Collection time in both Naive and Tango Basic GC implementations, but it won't be that way in my final implementation)
  • Heap memory used by the program
  • Free heap memory
  • Memory overhead (memory used by the GC not usable by the program)

The three last values will be gathered after and before the collection is made.

Anyway, if you know any program that can be suitable for use in an automated benchmark suite that uses Tango, please, please let me know.

Naive Garbage Collector

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 26 22:49 (updated on 2009- 04- 26 22:49)
tagged d, dgc, en, gc, howto, mark-sweep, naive, tango - with 2 comment(s)

I was working in a naive garbage collector implementation for D, as a way to document the process of writing a GC for D.

From the Naive Garbage Collector documentation:

The idea behind this implementation is to document all the bookkeeping and considerations that has to be taken in order to implement a garbage collector for D.

The garbage collector algorithm itself is extremely simple so focus can be held in the specifics of D, and not the algorithm. A completely naive mark and sweep algorithm is used, with a recursive mark phase. The code is extremely inefficient in order to keep the code clean and easy to read and understand.

Performance is, as expected, horrible, horrible, horrible (2 orders of magnitude slower than the basic GC for the simple Tango GC Benchmark) but I think it's pretty good as documentation =)

I have submitted the implementation to Tango in the hope that it gets accepted. A git repository is up too.

If you want to try it out with LDC, you have to put the files into the naive directory in tango/lib/gc and edit the file runtime/CMakeLists.txt and search/replace "basic" for "naive". Then you have to search for the line:


And replace it with:

file(GLOB GC_D ${RUNTIME_GC_DIR}/gc/*.d)

Comments and reviews are welcome, and please let me know if you try it =)

Immix mark-region garbage collector

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 25 17:39 (updated on 2009- 04- 25 17:39)
tagged copying, d, dgc, en, gc, immix, mark-region, moving, paper, tracing - with 0 comment(s)

Yesterday Fawzi Mohamed pointed me to a Tango forums post (<rant>god! I hate forums</rant> =) where Keith Nazworth announces he wants to start a new GC implementation in his spare time.

He wants to progressively implement the Immix Garbage Collector.

I read the paper and it looks interesting, and it looks like it could use the parallelization I plan to add to the current GC, so maybe our efforts can be coordinated to leave the possibility to integrate both improvements together in the future.

A few words about the paper: the heap organization is pretty similar to the one in the current GC implementation, except Immix proposes that pages should not be divided in fixed-size bins, but do pointer bump variable sized allocations inside a block. Besides that, all other optimizations that I saw in the paper are somehow general and can be applied to the current GC at some point (but some of them maybe don't fit as well). Among these optimizations are: opportunistic moving to avoid fragmentation, parallel marking, thread-local pools/allocator and generations. Almost all of the optimizations can be implemented incrementally, starting with a very basic collector which is not very far from the actual one.

There were some discussion on adding the necessary hooks to the language to allow a reference counting based garbage collector in the newsgroup (don't be fooled by the subject! Is not about disabling the GC =) and weak references implementation. There's a lot of discussion about GC lately in D, which is really exciting!

Guaranteed finalization support

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 19 14:03 (updated on 2009- 04- 19 14:03)
tagged d, dgc, en, finalization, specs, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

There was some discussion going on about what I found in my previous post. Unfortunately the discussion diverged a lot, and lots of people seems to defend not guaranteed finalization for no reason, or arguing that finalization is supposed to be used with RAII.

I find all the arguments very weak, at least for convincing me that the current specs are not broken (if finalizers shouldn't be used with objects with its lifetime determined by the GC, then don't let that happen).

The current specs allow a D implementation with a GC that don't call finalizers for collected objects at all! So any D program relying on that is actually broken.

Anyways, from all the possible solutions to this problem, I think the better is just to provide guaranteed finalization, at least at program exit. That is doable (and easily doable by the way).

I filed a bug report about this, but unfortunately, seeing how the discussion at the news group went, I'm very skeptic about this being fixed at all.

Object finalization

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 18 12:18 (updated on 2009- 04- 18 12:18)
tagged d, dgc, en, finalization, specs, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

I'm writing a trivial naive (but fully working) GC implementation. The idea is:

  1. Improve my understanding about how a GC is written from the ground up
  2. Ease the learning curve for other people wanting to learn how to write a D GC
  3. Serve as documentation (will be fully documented)
  4. Serve as a benchmarking base (to see how better is an implementation compared to the dumbest and simplest implementation ever =)

There is a lot of literature on GC algorithms, but there is almost no literature of the particularities on implementing a GC in D (how to handle the stack, how finalize an object, etc.). The idea of this GC implementation is to tackle this. The collection and allocation algorithms are really simple so you can pay attention to the other stuff.

The exercise is already paying off. Implementing this GC I was able to see some details I missed when I've done the analysis of the current implementation.

For example, I completely missed finalization. The GC stores for each cell a flag that indicates when an object should be finalized, and when the memory is swept it calls rt_finalize() to take care of the business. That was easy to add to my toy GC implementation.

Then I was trying to decide if all memory should be released when the GC is terminated or if I could let the OS do that. Then I remembered finalization, so I realized I should at least call the finalizers for the live objects. So I went see how the current implementation does that.

It turns out it just calls a full collection (you have an option to not collect at all, or to collect excluding roots from the stack, using the undocumented gc_setTermCleanupLevel() and gc_gsetTermCleanupLevel() functions). So if there are still pointers in the static data or in the stack to objects with finalizers, those finalizers are never called.

I've searched the specs and it's a documented feature that D doesn't guarantee that all objects finalizers get called:

The garbage collector is not guaranteed to run the destructor for all unreferenced objects. Furthermore, the order in which the garbage collector calls destructors for unreference objects is not specified. This means that when the garbage collector calls a destructor for an object of a class that has members that are references to garbage collected objects, those references may no longer be valid. This means that destructors cannot reference sub objects.

I knew that ordering was not guaranteed so you can't call other finalizer in a finalizer (and that make a lot of sense), but I didn't knew about the other stuff. This is great for GC implementors but not so nice for GC users ;)

I know that the GC, being conservative, has a lot of limitations, but I think this one is not completely necessary. When the program ends, it should be fairly safe to call all the finalizers for the live objects, referenced or not.

In this scheme, finalization is as reliable as UDP =)

Understanding the current GC, conclusion

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 11 16:36 (updated on 2009- 04- 11 16:36)
tagged book, conclusion, d, dgc, druntime, en, gc, mark-sweep, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

Now that I know fairly deeply the implementation details about the current GC, I can compare it to the techniques exposed in the GC Book.

Tri-colour abstraction

Since most literature speaks in terms of the tri-colour abstraction, now it's a good time to translate how this is mapped to the D GC implementation.

As we all remember, each cell (bin) in D has several bits associated to them. Only 3 are interesting in this case:

  • mark
  • scan
  • free (freebits)

So, how we can translate this bits into the tri-colour abstraction?


Cells that were marked and scanned (there are no pointer to follow) are coloured black. In D this cells has the bits:

mark = 1
scan = 0
free = 0

Cells that has been marked, but they have pointers to follow in them are coloured grey. In D this cells has the bits:

mark = 1
scan = 1
free = 0

Cells that has not been visited at all are coloured white (all cells should be colored white before the marking starts). In D this cells has the bits:

mark = 0
scan = X


free = 1

The scan bit is not important in this case (but in D it should be 0 because scan bits are cleared before the mark phase starts). The free bit is used for the cells in the free list. They are marked before other cells get marked with bits mark=1 and free=1. This way the cells in the free list don't get scanned (mark=1, scan=0) and are not confused with black cells (free=1), so they can be kept in the free list after the mark phase is done. I think this is only necessary because the free list is regenerated.


Here is a summary of improvements proposed by the GC Book, how the current GC is implemented in regards to this improvements and what optimization opportunities can be considered.

Mark stack

The simplest version of the marking algorithm is recursive:

    if not cell.marked
        cell.marked = true
        for child in cell.children

The problem here is, of course, stack overflow for very deep heap graphs (and the space cost).

The book proposes using a marking stack instead, and several ways to handle stack overflow, but all these are only useful for relieving the symptom, they are not a cure.

As a real cure, pointer reversal is proposed. The idea is to use the very same pointers to store the mark stack. This is constant in space, and needs only one pass through the help, so it's a very tempting approach. The bad side is increased complexity and probably worse cache behavior (writes to the heap dirties the entire heap, and this can kill the cache).

Current implementation

The D GC implementation does none of this. Instead it completes the mark phase by traversing the heap (well, not really the heap, only the bit sets) in several passes, until no more data to scan can be found (all cells are painted black or white). While the original algorithm only needs one pass through the heap, this one need several. This trades space (and the complexity of stack overflow handling) for time.

Optimization opportunities

This seems like a fair trade-off, but alternatives can be explored.

Bitmap marking

The simplest mark-sweep algorithm suggests to store marking bits in the very own cells. This can be very bad for the cache because a full traversal should be done across the entire heap. As an optimization, a bitmap can be used, because they are much small and much more likely to fit in the cache, marking can be greatly improved using them.

Current implementation

Current implementation uses bitmaps for mark, scan, free and other bits. The bitmap implementation is GCBits and is a general approach.

The bitmap stores a bit for each 16 bytes chunks, no matter what cell size (Bins, or bin size) is used. This means that 4096/16 = 256 bits (32 bytes) are used for each bitmap for every page in the GC heap. Being 5 bitmaps (mark, scan, freebits, finals and noscan), the total spaces per page is 160 bytes. This is a 4% space overhead in bits only.

This wastes some space for larger cells.

Optimization opportunities

The space overhead of bitmaps seems to be fairly small, but each byte counts for the mark phase because of the cache. A heap with 64 MiB uses 2.5 MiB in bitmaps. Modern processors come with about that much cache, and a program using 64 MiB doesn't seems very rare. So we are pushing the limits here if we want our bitmaps to fit in the cache to speed up the marking phase.

I think there is a little room for improvement here. A big object, lets say it's 8 MiB long, uses 640 KiB of memory for bitmaps it doesn't need. I think some specialized bitmaps can be used for large object, for instance, to minimize the bitmaps space overhead.

There are some overlapping bits too. mark=0 and scan=1 can never happen for instance. I think it should be possible to use that combination for freebits, and get rid of an entire bitmap.

Lazy sweep

The sweep phase is done generally right after the mark phase. Since normally the collection is triggered by an allocation, this can be a little disrupting for the thread that made that allocation, that has to absorb all the sweeping itself.

Another alternative is to do the sweeping incrementally, by doing it lazy. Instead of finding all the white cells and linking them to the free list immediately, this is done on each allocation. If there is no free cells in the free list, a little sweeping is done until new space can be found.

This can help minimize pauses for the allocating thread.

Current implementation

The current implementation does an eager sweeping.

Optimization opportunities

The sweeping phase can be made lazy. The only disadvantage I see is (well, besides extra complexity) that could make the heap more likely to be fragmented, because consecutive requests are not necessarily made on the same page (a free() call can add new cells from another page to the free list), making the heap more sparse, (which can be bad for the cache too). But I think this is only possible if free() is called explicitly, and this should be fairly rare in a garbage collected system, so I guess this could worth trying.

Lazy sweeping helps the cache too, because in the sweep phase, you might trigger cache misses when linking to the free list. When sweeping lazily, the cache miss is delayed until it's really necessary (the cache miss will happen anyway when you are allocating the free cell).


Even when the current GC is fairly optimized, there is plenty of room for improvements, even preserving the original global design.

Understanding the current GC, the end

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 11 01:46 (updated on 2009- 04- 15 01:10)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, gc, mark, mark-sweep, sweep, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

In this post I will take a closer look at the Gcx.mark() and Gcx.fullcollect() functions.

This is a simplified version of the mark algorithm:

mark(from, to)
    changes = 0
    while from < to
        pool = findPool(from)
        offset = from - pool.baseAddr
        page_index = offset / PAGESIZE
        bin_size = pool.pagetable[page_index]
        bit_index = find_bit_index(bin_size, pool, offset)
        if not pool.mark.test(bit_index)
            if not pool.noscan.test(bit_index)
                changes = true
        anychanges |= changes // anychanges is global

In the original version, there are some optimizations and the find_bit_index() function doesn't exist (it does some bit masking to find the right bit index for the bit set). But everything else is pretty much the same.

So far, is evident that the algorithm don't mark the whole heap in one step, because it doesn't follow pointers. It just marks a consecutive chunk of memory, assuming that pointers can be at any place in that memory, as long as they are aligned (from increments in word-sized steps).

fullcollect() is the one in charge of following pointers, and marking chunks of memory. It does it in an iterative way (that's why mark() informs about anychanges (when new pointer should be followed to mark them, or, speaking in the tri-colour abstraction, when grey cells are found).

fullcollect() is huge, so I'll split it up in smaller pieces for the sake of clarity. Let's see what are the basic blocks (see the second part of this series):

    thread_scanAll(mark, stackTop)

Generaly speaking, all the functions that have some CamelCasing are real functions and the ones that are all_lowercase and made up by me.

Let's see each function.

This is part of the threads runtime (found in src/common/core/thread.d). A simple peak at it shows it uses SIGUSR1 to stop the thread. When the signal is caught it pushes all the registers into the stack to be sure any pointers there are scanned in the future. The threads waits for SIGUSR2 to resume.
foreach pool in pooltable
foreach n in B_16 .. B_PAGE
    foreach node in bucket
        pool = findPool(node)
        pool.freebits.set(find_bit_index(pool, node))
        pool.mark.set(find_bit_index(pool, node))
This function, as the name suggests, uses the provided mark function callback to scan the program's static data.
thread_scanAll(mark, stackTop)
This is another threads runtime function, used to mark the suspended threads stacks. I does some calculation about the stack bottom and top, and calls mark(bottom, top), so at this point we have marked all reachable memory from the stack(s).
mark(roots, roots + nroots)
foreach range in ranges
    mark(range.pbot, range.ptop)

This is where most of the marking work is done. The code is really ugly, very hard to read (mainly because of bad variable names) but what it does it's relatively simple, here is the simplified algorithm:

// anychanges is global and was set by the mark()ing of the
// stacks and root set
while anychanges
    anychanges = 0
    foreach pool in pooltable
        foreach bit_pos in pool.scan
            if not pool.scan.test(bit_pos)
            pool.scan.clear(bit_pos) // mark as already scanned
            bin_size = find_bin_for_bit(pool, bit_pos)
            bin_base_addr = find_base_addr_for_bit(pool, bit_pos)
            if bin_size < B_PAGE // small object
                bin_top_addr = bin_base_addr + bin_size
            else if bin_size in [B_PAGE, B_PAGEPLUS] // big object
                page_num = (bin_base_addr - pool.baseAddr) / PAGESIZE
                if bin == B_PAGEPLUS // search for the base page
                    while pool.pagetable[page_num - 1] != B_PAGE
                n_pages = 1
                while page_num + n_pages < pool.ncommitted
                        and pool.pagetable[page_num + n_pages] == B_PAGEPLUS
                bin_top_addr = bin_base_addr + n_pages * PAGESIZE
            mark(bin_base_addr, bin_top_addr)

The original algorithm has some optimizations for proccessing bits in clusters (skips groups of bins without the scan bit) and some kind-of bugs too.

Again, the functions in all_lower_case don't really exist, some pointer arithmetics are done in place for finding those values.

Note that the pools are iterated over and over again until there are no unvisited bins. I guess this is a fair price to pay for not having a mark stack (but I'm not really sure =).

This is, again, part of the threads runtime and resume all the paused threads by signaling a SIGUSR2 to them.

This (invented) function looks for unmarked bins and set the freebits bit on them if they are small objects (bin size smaller than B_PAGE) or mark the entire page as free (B_FREE) in case of large objects.

This step is in charge of executing destructors too (through rt_finalize() the runtime function).


This (also invented) function first clear the free list (bucket) and then rebuild it using the information collected in the previous step.

As usual, only bins with size smaller than B_PAGE are linked to the free list, except if the pages they belong to have all the bins freed, in which case the page is marked with the special B_FREE bin size. The same goes for big objects freed in the previous step.

I think rebuilding the whole free list is not necessary, the new free bins could be just linked to the existing free list. I guess this step exists to help reducing fragmentation, since the rebuilt free list group bins belonging to the same page together.

Understanding the current GC, part IV

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 10 18:33 (updated on 2009- 04- 10 18:33)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, freeing, gc, mark-sweep, reallocation, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

What about freeing? Well, is much simpler than allocation =) is a thread-safe wrapper for GC.freeNoSync(ptr).

GC.freeNoSync(ptr) gets the Pool that ptr belongs to and clear its bits. Then, if ptr points to a small object (bin size smaller than B_PAGE), it simply link that bin to the free list (Gcx.bucket). If ptr is a large object, the number of pages used by the object is calculated then all the pages marked as B_FREE (done by Pool.freePages(start, n_pages)).

Then, there is reallocation, which is a little more twisted than free, but doesn't add much value to the analysis. It does what you think it should (maybe except for a possible bug) using functions already seen in this post or in the previous ones.

Understanding the current GC, part III

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 10 02:28 (updated on 2009- 04- 10 02:28)
tagged allocation, d, dgc, druntime, en, gc, mark-sweep, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

In the previous post we focused on the Gcx object, the core of the GC in druntime (and Phobos and Tango, they are all are based on the same implementation). In this post we will focus on allocation, which a little more complex than it should be in my opinion.

It was not an easy task to follow how allocation works. A GC.malloc() call spawns into this function calls:

GC.malloc(size, bits)
 '---> GC.mallocNoSync(size, bits)
        |---> Gcx.allocPage(bin_size)
        |      |
        |      '---> Pool.allocPages(n_pages)
        |             |
        |             '---> Pool.extendPages(n_pages)
        |                    |
        |                    '---> os_mem_commit(addr, offset, size)
        |---> Gcx.fullcollectshell()
        |---> Gcx.newPool(n_pages)
        |      |
        |      '---> Pool.initialize(n_pages)
        |             |
        |             |---> os_mem_map(mem_size)
        |             |
        |             '---> GCBits.alloc(bits_size)
        '---> Gcx.bigAlloc(size)
               |---> Pool.allocPages(n_pages)
               |      '---> (...)
               |---> Gcx.fullcollectshell()
               |---> Gcx.minimize()
               |      |
               |      '---> Pool.Dtor()
               |             |
               |             |---> os_mem_decommit(addr, offset, size)
               |             |
               |             |---> os_mem_map(addr, size)
               |             |
               |             '---> GCBits.Dtor()
               '---> Gcx.newPool(n_pages)
                      '---> (...)

Doesn't look so simple, ugh?

The map/commit differentiation of Windows doesn't exactly help simplicity. Note that Pool.initialize() maps the memory (reserve the address space) while Pool.allocPages() (through Pool.extendPages()) commit the new memory (ask the OS to actually reserve the virtual memory). I don't know how good is this for Windows (or put in another way, how bad could it be for Windows if all mapped memory gets immediately committed), but it adds a new layer of complexity (that's not even needed in Posix OSs). The whole branch starting at Gcx.allocPage(bin_size) would be gone if this distinction it's not made. Besides this, it worsen Posix OSs performance, because there are some non-trivial lookups to handle this non-existing non-committed pages, even when the os_mem_commit() and os_mem_decommit() functions are NOP and can be optimized out, the lookups are there.

Mental Note

See if getting rid of the commit()/decommit() stuff improves Linux performance.

But well, let's forget about this issue for now and live with it. Here is a summary of what all this functions do.


I recommend to give another read to the (updated) previous posts of this series, specially if you are not familiar with the Pool concept and implementation.

GC.malloc(size, bits)
This is just a wrapper for multi-threaded code, it takes the GCLock if necessary and calls GC.mallocNoSync(size, bits).
GC.mallocNoSync(size, bits)

This function has 2 different algorithms for small objects (less than a page of 4KiB) and another for big objects.

It does some common work for both cases, like logging and adding a sentinel for debugging purposes (if those feature are enabled), finding the bin size (bin_size) that better fits size (and cache the result as an optimization for consecutive calls to malloc with the same size) and setting the bits (NO_SCAN, NO_MOVE, FINALIZE) to the allocated bin.

Small objects (bin_size < B_PAGE)
Looks at the free list (Gcx.bucket) trying to find a page with the minimum bin size that's equals or bigger than size. If it can't succeed, it calls Gcx.allocPage(bin_size) to find room in uncommitted pages. If there still no room for the requested amount of memory, it triggers a collection (Gcx.fullcollectshell()). If there is still no luck, Gcx.newPage(1) is called to ask the OS for more memory. Then it calls again Gcx.allocPage(bin_size) (remember the new memory is just mmap'ped but not commit'ed) and if there is no room in the free list still, an out of memory error is issued.
Big objects (B_PAGE and B_PAGEPLUS)
It simply calls Gcx.bigAlloc(size) and issue an out of memory error if that call fails to get the requested memory.
This function linearly search the pooltable for a Pool with an allocable page (i.e. a page already mapped by not yet committed). This is done through a call to Pool.allocPages(1). If a page is found, its bin size is set to bin_size via the Pool's pagetable, and all the bins of that page are linked to the free list (Gcx.bucket).
Search for n_pages consecutive free pages (B_FREE) in the committed pages (pages in the pagetable with index up to ncommited). If they're not found, Pool.extendPages(n_pages) is called to commit some more mapped pages to fulfill the request.
Commit n_pages already mapped pages (calling os_mem_commit()), setting them as free (B_FREE) and updating the ncommited attribute. If there are not that many uncommitted pages, it returns an error.
This function adds a new Pool to the pooltable. It first adjusts the n_pages variable using various rules (for example, it duplicates the current allocated memory until 8MiB are allocated and then allocates 8MiB pools always, unless more memory is requested in the first place, of course). Then a new Pool is created with the adjusted n_pages value and it's initialized calling to Pool.initialize(n_pages), the pooltable is resized to fit the new number of pools (npools) and sorted using Pool.opCmp() (which uses the baseAddr to compare). Finally the minAddr and maxAddr attributes are updated.
Initializes all the Pool attributes, mapping the requested number of pages (n_pages) using os_mem_map(). All the bit sets (mark, scan, freebits, noscan) are allocated (using GCBits.alloc()) to n_pages * PAGESIZE / 16 bits and the pagetable too, setting all bins to B_UNCOMMITTED and ncommitted to 0.

This is the weirdest function by far. There are very strange things, but I'll try to explain what I understand from it (what I think it's trying to do).

It first make a simple lookup in the pooltable for n_pages consecutive pages in any existing Pool (calling Pool.allocPages(n_pages) as in Gcx.allocPage()). If this fails, it runs a fullcollectshell() (if not disabled) then calls to minimize() (to prevent bloat) and then create a new pool (calling newPool() followed by Pool.allocPages()). If all that fails, it returns an error. If something succeed, the bin size for the first page is set to B_PAGE and the remaining pages are set to B_PAGEPLUS (if any). If there is any unused memory at the end, it's initialized to 0 (to prevent false positives when scanning I guess).

The weird thing about this, is that a lot of lookups into the pooltable are done in certain condition, but I think they are not needed because there are no changes that can make new room.

I don't know if this is legacy code that never got updated and have a lot of useless lookups or if I'm getting something wrong. Help is welcome!

There is not much to say about os_mem_xxx(), Gcx.minimize() and Gcx.fullcollectshell() functions, they were briefly described in the previous posts of this series. Pool.Dtor() just undo what was done in Pool.initialize().

A final word about the free list (Gcx.bucket). It's just a simple linked list. It uses the first size_t bytes of the free bin to point to the next free bin (there's always room for a pointer in a bin because their minimum size is 16 bytes). A simple structure is used to easy this:

struct List {
    List *next;

Then, the memory cell is casted to this structure to use the next pointer, like this:

p = gcx.bucket[bin]
gcx.bucket[bin] = (cast(List*) p).next

I really have my doubts if this is even a little less cryptic than:

p = gcx.bucket[bin]
gcx.bucket[bin] = *(cast(void**) p)

But what the hell, this is no really important =)

Understanding the current GC, part II

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 05 21:00 (updated on 2009- 04- 15 01:10)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, gc, gcx, mark-sweep, understanding the current gc - with 0 comment(s)

Back to the analysis of the current GC implementation, in this post I will focus on the Gcx object structure and methods.

Gcx attributes

Root set
roots (nroots, rootdim)
An array of root pointers.
ranges (nranges, rangedim)
An array of root ranges (a range of memory that should be scanned for root pointers).
Beginning of the stack (stackBottom)
A pointer to the stack bottom (assuming it grows up).
Pool table (pooltable, npools)
An array of pointers to Pool objects (the heap itself).
Free list (bucket)
A free list for each Bins size.
Internal state
Set if the marking of a range has actually marked anything (and then using in the full collection.
Set if the GC has been initialized.
Behaviour changing attributes
Don't scan the stack if activated.
Turn on logging if activated.
Don't run the collector if activated.
Cache (for optimizations and such)
p_cache, size_cache
Querying the size of a heap object is an expensive task. This caches the last query as an optimization.
minAddr, maxAddr
All the heap is in this range. It's used as an optimization when looking if a pointer can be pointing into the heap (if the pointer is not in this range it can be safely discarded, but if it's in the range, a full search in the pooltable should be done).

Gcx main methods

Initialization, set the Gcx object attributes to 0, except for the stackBottom (which is set to the address of a dummy local variable, this works because this function is one of the first functions called by the runtime) and the inited flag, that is set to 1. The log is initialized too.
Destruction, free all the memory.
Root set manipulation
addRoot(p), removeRoot(p), rootIter(dg)
Add, remove and iterate over single root pointers.
addRange(pbot, ptop), remove range(pbot), rangeIter(dg)
Add, remove and iterate over root pointer ranges. This methods are almost the same as the previous ones, so the code duplication here can be improved here.
Flags manipulation

Each Bin has some flags associated (as explained before). With this functions the user can manipulate some of them:

  • FINALIZE: this pool has destructors to be called (final flag)
  • NO_SCAN: this pool should not be scanned for pointers (noscan flag)
  • NO_MOVE: this pool shouldn't be moved (not implemented)
getBits(pool, biti)
Get which of the flags specified by biti are set for the pool Pool.
setBits(pool, mask)
Set the flags specified by mask for the pool Pool.
clrBits(pool, mask)
Clear the flags specified by mask for the pool Pool.
Find the Pool object that pointer p is in.
Find the base address of block containing pointer p.
Find the size of the block pointed by p.
Get information on the pointer p. The information is composed of: base (the base address of the block), size (the size of the block) and attr (the flags associated to the block, as shown in Flag manipulation). This information is returned as a structure called the BlkInfo.
Compute Bins (bin size) for an object of size size.
Heap (pagetable) manipulation

The pooltable is kept sorted always.

Allocate a new Pool of at least size bytes.
Minimizes physical memory usage by returning free pools to the OS.
Allocate a chunk of memory that is larger than a page.
Allocate a new Pool with at least npages pages in it.
Allocate a page of bin size.
mark(pbot, ptop)

This is the mark phase. It search a range of memory values and mark any pointers into the GC heap. The mark bit is set, and if the noscan bit is unset, the scan bit is activated (indicating that the block should be scanned for pointers, equivalent to coloring the cell grey in the tri-colour abstraction).

The mark phase is not recursive (nor a mark stack is used). Only the passed range is marked, pointers are not followed here.

That's why the anychanges flag is used, if anything has got marked, anychanges is set to true. The marking phase is done iteratively until no more blocks are marked, in which case we can safely assume that we marked all the live blocks.

The purpose of the shell is to ensure all the registers get put on the stack so they'll be scanned.

Collect memory that is not referenced by the program. The algorithm is something like this:

  1. Stop the world (all other threads)
  2. Clear all the mark/scan bits in the pools
  3. Manually mark each free list entry (bucket), so it doesn't get scanned
  4. mark() the static data
  5. mark() stacks and registers for each paused thread
  6. mark() the root set (both roots and ranges)
  7. mark() the heap iteratively until no more changes are detected (anychanges is false)
  8. Start the world (all other threads)
  9. Sweep (free up everything not marked)
  10. Free complete pages, rebuild free list


This is a very summarized version of the algorithm, what I could understand from a quick look into the code, which is pretty much undocumented. A deeper analysis should be done in a following post.

TODO list

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 05 03:42 (updated on 2009- 04- 05 03:42)
tagged d, dgc, en, issue tracker, plan, project, todo - with 0 comment(s)

I've activated the issue tracker module in my D Garbage Collector Research project to be able to track my TODO list.

This is probably useful just for me, but maybe you can be interested in knowing what I will do next =)

GC optimization for contiguous pointers to the same page

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 04- 01 20:41 (updated on 2009- 04- 01 20:41)
tagged d, dgc, en, gc, optimization, phobos - with 0 comment(s)

This optimization had a patch, written by Vladimir Panteleev, sitting on Bugzilla (issue #1923) for a little more than an year now. It was already included in both Tango (issue #982) and DMD 2.x but DMD 1.x was missing it.

Fortunately is now included in DMD 1.042, released yesterday.

This optimization is best seen when you do word splitting of a big text (as shown in the post that triggered the patch):

import std.file, std.string;
void main() {
    auto txt = cast(string) read("text.txt"); // 6.3 MiB of text
    auto words = txt.split();

Now in words we have an array of slices (a contiguous area in memory filled with pointers) about the same size of the original text, as explained by Vladimir.

The GC heap is divided in (4KiB) pages, each page contains cells of a fixed type called bins. There are bin sizes of 16 (B_16) to 4096 (B_PAGE), incrementing in steps of power of 2 (32, 64, etc.). See Understanding the current GC for more details.

For large contiguous objects (like txt in this case) multiple pages are needed, and that pages contains only one bin of size B_PAGEPLUS, indicating that this object is distributed among several pages.

Now, back with the words array, we have a range of about 3 millions interior pointers into the txt contiguous memory (stored in about 1600 pages of bins with size B_PAGEPLUS). So each time the GC needs to mark the heap, it has to follow this 3 millions pointers and find out where is the beginning of that block to see its mark-state (if it's marked or not). Finding the beginning of the block is not that slow, but when you multiply it by 3 millions, it could get a little noticeable. Specially when this is done several times as the dynamic array of words grow and the GC collection is triggered several times, so this is kind of exponential.

The optimization consist in remembering the last page visited if the bin size was B_PAGE or B_PAGEPLUS, so if the current pointer being followed points to the last visited (cached) page, we can skip this lookup (and all the marking indeed, as we know we already visited that page).

Mercurial is not good enough

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 03- 31 23:55 (updated on 2009- 03- 31 23:55)
tagged d, dgc, en, fast-export, git, howto, ldc, mercurial - with 0 comment(s)

I started learning some Mercurial for interacting with the LDC repository, but I disliked it instantly. Sure, it's great when you come from SVN, but it's just too limited if you come from GIT (I can't live anymore without git rebase -i).

Fortunately there is fast-export. With it I can incrementally import the Mercurial repository in a GIT repository as easy as:

hg clone ldc-hg
mkdir ldc
cd ldc
git init -r my_local_hg_repo_clone

I'm very happy to be at home again =)


by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 03- 29 15:56 (updated on 2009- 03- 29 15:56)
tagged compiler, d, dgc, en, howto, ldc, llvm - with 0 comment(s)

My original plan was to use GDC as my compiler of choice. This was mainly because DMD is not free and there is a chance that I need to put my hands in the compiler guts.

This was one or two years ago, now the situation has changed a lot. GDC is dead (there was no activity for a long time, and this added to the fact that GCC hacking is hard, it pretty much removes GDC from the scene for me).

OTOH, DMD now provides full source code of the back-end (the front-end was released under the GPL/Artistic licence long ago), but the license is really unclear about what can you do with it. Most of the license mostly tell you how you can never, never, never sue Digital Mars, but about what you can actually do, it's says almost nothing:

The Software is copyrighted and comes with a single user license, and may
not be redistributed. If you wish to obtain a redistribution license,
please contact Digital Mars.

You can't redistribute it, that's for sure. It says nothing about modifications. Anyways, I don't think Walter Bright mind to give me permission to modify it and use it for my personal project, but I prefer to have a software with a better license to work with (and I never was a big fan of Walter's coding either, so =P).

Fortunately there is a new alternative now: LDC. You should know by now that LDC is the DMD front-end code glued to the LLVM back-end, that there is an alpha release (with much of the main functionality finished), that it's completely FLOSS and that it's moving fast and getting better every day (a new release is coming soon too).

I didn't play with LLVM so far, but all I hear about it is that's a nice, easy to learn and work, compiler framework that is widely used, and getting better and better very fast too.

To build LDC just follow the nice instructions (I'm using Debian so I just had to aptitude install cmake cmake-curses-gui llvm-dev libconfig++6-dev mercurial and go directly to the LDC specific part). Now I just have to learn a little about Mercurial (coming from GIT it shouldn't be too hard), and maybe a little about LLVM and I'm good to go.

So LDC is my compiler of choice now. And it should be yours too =)

Collected newsgroup links

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 03- 29 01:05 (updated on 2009- 03- 29 01:05)
tagged d, dgc, en, links, wiki - with 0 comment(s)

I've been monitoring and saving interesting (GC related mostly) posts from the D newsgroups. I saved all in a plain text file until today that I decided to add them to a page.

Please feel free to add any missing post that include interesting GC-related discussions.


D GC Benchmark Suite

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 03- 28 15:31 (updated on 2009- 03- 28 15:31)
tagged benchmark, d, dgc, en, request - with 0 comment(s)

I'm trying to make a benchmark suite to evaluate different GC implementations.

What I'm looking for is:

Feel free to post trivial test or links to programs projects as comments or via e-mail.


Accurate Garbage Collection in an Uncooperative Environment

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 03- 21 17:23 (updated on 2009- 03- 22 00:05)
tagged accurate, d, dgc, en, henderson, paper, tracing, uncooperative environment - with 0 comment(s)

I just read Accurate Garbage Collection in an Uncooperative Environment paper.

Unfortunately this paper try to solve mostly problems D don't see as problems, like portability (targeting languages that emit C code instead of native machine code, like the Mercury language mentioned in the paper). Based on the problem of tracing the C stack in a portable way, it suggests to inject some code to functions to construct a linked list of stack information (which contains local variables information) to be able to trace the stack in an accurate way.

I think none of the ideas presented by this paper are suitable for D, because the GC already can trace the stack in D (in an unportable way, but it can), and it can get the type info from better places too.

In terms of (time) performance, benchmarks shows that is a little worse than Boehm (et al) GC, but they argue that Boehm has years of fine grained optimizations and it's tightly coupled with the underlying architecture while this new approach is almost unoptimized yet and it's completely portable.

The only thing it mentions that could apply to D (and any conservative GC in general) is the issues that compiler optimizations can introduce. But I'm not aware of any of this issues, so I can't say anything about it.

In case you wonder, I've added this paper to my papers playground page =)


I think I missed the point with this paper. Current D GC can't possibly do accurate tracing of the stack, because there is no way to get a type info from there (I was thinking only in the heap, where some degree of accuracy is achieved by setting the noscan bit for a bin that don't have pointers, as mentioned in my previous post).

So this paper could help getting accurate GC into D, but it doesn't seems a great deal when you can add type information about local variables when emitting machine code instead of adding the shadow stack linked list. The only advantage I see is that I think it should be possible to implement the linked list in the front-end.

Understanding the current GC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2009- 01- 04 18:37 (updated on 2009- 04- 09 19:53)
tagged bin, d, dgc, druntime, en, gc, intro, mark-sweep, pool, understanding the current gc - with 1 comment(s)

Oh, yeah! A new year, a new air, and the same thesis =)

After a little break, I'm finally starting to analyze the current D (druntime) GC (basic) implementation in depth.

First I want to say I found the code really, but really, hard to read and follow. Things are split in several parts without apparent reason, which make it really hard to understand and it's pretty much undocumented.

I hope I can fully understand it in some time to be able to make a full rewrite of it (in a first pass, conserving the main design).


I'll start with a big picture overview, and then I'll try to describe each component with more detail.

The implementation in split in several files:

I didn't took a look at this one yet, but I guess it's about stats =).
A custom bitset implementation for collector bit/flags (mark, scan, etc.).
A wrapper for memory allocation with several versions (malloc, win32, mmap and valloc). 4 functions are provided: map, unmap, commit and decommit. The (de)commit stuff if because (in Sean Kelly's words) Windows has a 2-phase allocation process. You can reserve the address space via map and unmap, but the virtual memory isn't actually created until you call commit. So decommit gets rid of the virtual memory but retains ownership of the address space.
The real GC implementation, split in 2 main classes/structs: GC and Gcx. GC seems to be a thin wrapper over Gcx that only provides the allocation logic (alloc/realloc/free) and Gcx seems to be the responsible for the real GC work (and holding the memory).
This is just a thin wrapper over gcx.d to adapt it to the druntime GC interface.

The Gcx struct is where most magic happens. It holds the GC memory organized in pools. It holds the information about roots, the stack and free list, but in this post I'll focus in the memory pools:

Pool Concept

A pool is a group of pages, each page has a bin size (Bins) and host a fixed number of bins (PAGESIZE / Bins, for example, if Bins == 1024 and PAGESIZE == 4096, the page holds 4 bins).

Each bin has some bits of information:

Setted when the Bin is visited by the mark phase.
Setted when the Bin is has been visited by the mark phase (the mark bit is set) but it has pointers yet to be scanned.
Setted when the Bin is free (linked to a free list).
The object stored in this bin has a destructor that must be called when freed.
This bin should be not scanned by the collector (it has no pointers).
| Page 0 (bin size: Bins)                | ... | Page (npages-1) |
|                                        |     |                 |
| +--------+-----+---------------------+ |     |                 |
| | Bin 0  | ... | Bin (PAGESIZE/Bins) | |     |                 |
| +--------+-----+---------------------+ |     |                 |
| | mark   | ... |                     | |     |                 |
| | scan   | ... |                     | |     |       ...       |
| | free   | ... |         ...         | |     |                 |
| | final  | ... |                     | |     |                 |
| | noscan | ... |                     | |     |                 |
| +--------+-----+---------------------+ |     |                 |

Pool Implementation

A single chunk of memory is allocated for the whole pool, the baseAddr points to the start of the chunk, the topAddr, to the end. A pagetable holds the bin size (Bins) of each page

.          ,-- baseAddr                                   topAddr --,
           |                   ncommitted = i                       |
           |                                                        |
           |--- committed pages ---,------ uncommitted pages -------|
           V                       |                                V
    memory | Page 0 | Page 1 | ... | Page i | ... | Page (npages-1) |
               /\       /\      /\     /\      /\          /\
               ||       ||      ||     ||      ||          ||
 pagetable | Bins 0 | Bins 1 | ... | Bins i | ... | Bins (npages-1) |
(bin size) +--------+--------+-----+--------+-----+-----------------+

The bin size can be one of:

The XXX is a power of 2 from 16 to 4096. The special name B_PAGE is used for the size 4096.
The whole page is a continuation of a large object (the first page of a large object has size B_PAGE).
The page is completely free.
The page is not committed yet.
Not really a value, used for iteration or allocation. Pages can't have this value.

The information bits are stored in a custom bit set (GCBits). npages * PAGESIZE / 16 bits are allocated (since the smallest bin is 16 bytes long) and each bit is addressed using this formula:

bit(pointer) = (pointer - baseAddr) / 16

This means that a bit is reserved each 16 bytes. For large bin sizes, a lot of bits are wasted.

The minimum pool size is 256 pages. With 4096 bytes pages, that is 1 MiB.

The GCBits implementation deserves another post, it's a little complex and I still don't understand why.

druntime developers FAQ

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 12- 05 09:38 (updated on 2008- 12- 05 09:38)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, faq - with 0 comment(s)

I've compiled some of the questions I asked about druntime to Sean Kelly and added them to a (really) small FAQ page in the wiki.

Improved druntime getting started documentation

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 12- 02 21:07 (updated on 2008- 12- 02 21:07)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, howto - with 0 comment(s)

I've expanded the druntime Getting Started documentation. I basically added all the information I've posted in this blog so far: how to change the GC implementation and rebuild phobos.

Testing druntime modifications

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 11- 30 01:51 (updated on 2008- 11- 30 01:51)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, howto, phobos - with 0 comment(s)

Now that we can compile druntime, we should be able to compile some programs that use our fresh, modified, druntime library.

Since DMD 2.021, druntime is built into phobos, so if we want to test some code we need to rebuild phobos too, to include our new druntime.

Since I'm particularly interested in the GC, let's say we want to use the GC stub implementation (instead of the basic default).

We can add a simple "init" message to see that something is actually happening. For example, open src/gc/stub/gc.d and add this import:

private import core.sys.posix.unistd: write;

Then, in the gc_init() function add this line:

write(1, "init\n".ptr, 5);

Now, we must tell druntime we want to use the stub GC implementation. Edit dmd-posix.mak, search for DIR_GC variable and change it from basic to stub:


Great, now recompile druntime.

Finally, go to your DMD installation, and edit src/phobos/linux.mak. Search for the DRUNTIME variable and set it to the path to your newly generated libdruntime.a (look in the druntime lib directory). For me it's something like:


Now recompile phobos. I have to do this, because my DMD compiler is named dmd2:

make -f linux.mak DMD=dmd2

Now you can compile some trivial D program (compile it in the src druntime directory so its dmd.conf is used to search for the libraries and imports) and see how "init" get printed when the program starts. For example:

druntime/src$ cat hello.d

import core.sys.posix.unistd: write;

void main()
    write(1, "hello!\n".ptr, 7);

druntime/src$ dmd2 -L-L/home/luca/tesis/dmd2/lib hello.d
druntime/src$ ./hello

Note that I passed my DMD compiler's lib path so it can properly find the newly created libphobos2.a.

druntime build system

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 11- 26 00:28 (updated on 2008- 11- 26 00:28)
tagged build system, d, dgc, druntime, en, patch - with 0 comment(s)

I have to be honest on this one. I'm not crazy about the druntime build system. I know there are a lot of other more important thing to work on, but I can't help myself, and if I'm not comfortable with the build system, I get too much distracted, so I have no choice but to try to improve it a little =)

First, I don't like the HOME environment variable override hack in (I won't talk about the Windows build because I don't have Windows, so I can't test it).

So I've made a simple patch to tackle this. It just adds a dmd.conf configuration file in each directory owning a makefile. I think it's a fair price to pay adding this extra files to be hable to just use make and get rid of the script.

I've added a ticket on this and another related ticket with a patch too.

Getting started with druntime

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 11- 25 00:27 (updated on 2008- 11- 25 00:27)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, howto - with 0 comment(s)

I've added a brief draft about how to get started in the druntime wiki, which I plan to expand a little in the future.

I hope somebody find it useful.

BTW, the -version=Posix fix is now included in the main repo.

My druntime repository

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 11- 24 00:17 (updated on 2008- 11- 24 00:17)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, git, repository - with 0 comment(s)

I've finally published my own git druntime repository. It has both branches, the one for D2 (the svn trunk, called master in my repo) and the one for D1 (D1.0 in svn, d1 in my repo).

For now, there are only changes in the master branch.

Hacking druntime

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 11- 22 14:38 (updated on 2009- 03- 28 17:17)
tagged d, dgc, druntime, en, howto, patch - with 0 comment(s)

I've been reading the source code of the druntime, and it's time to get my hands dirty and do some real work.

First I have to do to start hacking it is build it and start trying things out. There is no documentation at all yet, so I finally bothered Sean Kelly and asked him how to get started.

Here is what I had to do to get druntime compiled:

First of all, I'll introduce my environment and tools. I'll use DMD because there's no other option for now (druntime doesn't have support for GDC, but Sean says it's coming soon, and LDC will not be included until the support it's added to Tango runtime).

The trunk in the druntime repository is for D2, but there is a branch for D1 too.

I use Debian (so you'll see some apt stuff here) and I love git, and there's is no way I will go back to subversion. Fortunately there is git-svn, so that's what I'm gonna use =)

Now, what I did step by step.

  1. Get the git goodies:

    sudo aptitude install git-core git-svn
  2. Make a directory where to put all the D-related stuff:

    mkdir ~/d
    cd ~/d
  3. Get D2 (bleeding edge version) and unpack it:

    unzip # "install" the D2 compiler
    rm -fr dm dmd/linux/bin/{sc.ini,readme.txt,*.{exe,dll,hlp}} # cut the fat
    chmod a+x dmd/linux/bin/{dmd,rdmd,dumpobj,obj2asm} # make binaries executable
    mv dmd dmd2 # reserve the dmd directory for D1 compiler
  4. Make it accessible, for example:

    echo '#!/bin/sh' > ~/bin/dmd2 # reserve dmd name for the D1 compiler
    echo 'exec ~/d/dmd2/linux/bin/dmd "$@"' >> ~/bin/dmd2
    chmod a+x ~/bin/dmd2
  5. Get D1 and install it too:

    rm -fr dm dmd/linux/bin/{sc.ini,readme.txt,*.{exe,dll,hlp}}
    chmod a+x dmd/linux/bin/{dmd,rdmd,dumpobj,obj2asm}
    echo '#!/bin/sh' > ~/bin/dmd
    echo 'exec ~/d/dmd/linux/bin/dmd "$@"' >> ~/bin/dmd
    chmod a+x ~/bin/dmd
  6. Get druntime for D1 and D2 as separated repositories (you can get all in one git repository using git branches but since I'll work on both at the same time I prefer to use two separated repositories):

    git svn clone \
    git svn clone druntime2
  7. Build druntime for D1:

    cd druntime
    cd -
  8. Build druntime for D2.

    This one is a little trickier. The trunk version have some changes for a feature that is not yet released (this being changed from a pointer to a reference for structs). Fortunately this is well isolated in a single commit, so reverting this change is really easy, first, get the abbreviated hash for the commit 44:

    cd druntime2
    git log --grep='trunk@44' --pretty=format:%h

    This should give you a small string (mine is cae2326). Now, revert that change:

    git revert cae2326

    Done! You now have that change reverted, we can remove this new commit later when the new version of DMD that implements the this change appear.

    But this is not all. Then I find a problem about redefining the Posix version:

    Error: version identifier 'Posix' is reserved and cannot be set

    To fix this you just have to remove the -version=Posix from

    But there is still one more problem, but this is because I have renamed the bianries to have both dmd and dmd2. The compiler we have to use to build things is called dmd2 for me, but don't override properly the DC environment variable when calling make, so dmd is used instead.

    This is a simple and quick fix:

    diff --git a/src/ b/src/
    old mode 100644
    new mode 100755
    index d6be599..8f3b163
    --- a/src/
    +++ b/src/
    @@ -11,9 +11,10 @@ goerror(){
         exit 1
    -make clean -fdmd-posix.mak           || goerror
    -make lib doc install -fdmd-posix.mak || goerror
    -make clean -fdmd-posix.mak           || goerror
    +test -z "$DC" && DC=dmd
    +make DC=$DC clean -fdmd-posix.mak           || goerror
    +make DC=$DC lib doc install -fdmd-posix.mak || goerror
    +make DC=$DC clean -fdmd-posix.mak           || goerror
     chmod 644 ../import/*.di             || goerror
     export HOME=$OLDHOME

    (to apply the patch just copy&paste it to fix.patch and then do git apply fix.patch; that should do the trick)

    Now you can do something like this to build druntime for D2:

    export DC=dmd2

That's it for now. I'll be publishing my druntime (git) repository soon with this changes (and probably submitting some patches to upstream) so stay tuned ;)

Richard Jones GC book figures

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 10- 21 22:21 (updated on 2008- 10- 21 23:01)
tagged book, d, dgc, en, figures, richard jones - with 0 comment(s)

Yesterday Richard Jones announced the publication of all the figures of the GC book he co-authored.

This is very nice news indeed =)

PS: Yes, I'm still alive, just very busy =( I took a look at the D's GC, but I'm waiting too for all the fuzz about the new druntime to settle a little to ask Sean Kelly some questions about it's internals


by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 09- 15 23:25 (updated on 2008- 09- 15 23:25)
tagged d, dgc, en, intro, mark-sweep, tracing - with 0 comment(s)

After a busy week (unfortunately not working on my thesis), I'll move on to mark-sweep algorithms (I've covered the basic reference counting stuff for now).

The GC book start with some obvious optimizations about making the marking phase non recursive using an explicit stack and methods to handle stack overflow.

Since current D's GC is mark-sweep, I think I have to take a (deeper) look at it now, to see what optimizations is actually using (I don't think D GC is using the primitive recursive algorithm) and take that as the base ground to look for improvements.

The Python's algorithm

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 09- 07 23:05 (updated on 2008- 09- 07 23:05)
tagged cycles, d, dgc, en, python, rc - with 0 comment(s)

Python (at least CPython) uses reference counting, and since version 2.0 it includes a cycles freeing algorithm. It uses a generational approach, with 3 generations.

Python makes a distinction between atoms (strings and numbers mostly), which can't be part of cycles; and containers (tuples, lists, dictionaries, instances, classes, etc.), which can. Since it's unable to find all the roots, it keeps track of all the container objects (as a double linked list) and periodically look in them for cycles. If somebody survive the collection, is promoted to the next generation.

I think this works pretty well in real life programs (I never had problems with Python's GC -long pauses or such-, and I never heard complains either), and I don't see why it shouldn't work for D. Even more, Python have an issue with finalizers which don't exist in D because you don't have any warranties about finalization order in D already (and nobody seems to care, because when you need to have some order of finalization you should probably use some kind of RAII).

Partial mark and sweep cycle reclamation

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 09- 07 15:26 (updated on 2008- 09- 07 15:26)
tagged cycles, d, dgc, en, mark-sweep, partial, rc - with 0 comment(s)

This is a more polished version of the last idea about adding a backup tracing GC to collect cycles. We just trace the areas of the heap that can potentially store cycles (instead of tracing all the heap).

So, how do we know which areas may have cycles? When a reference counter is decremented, if it becomes zero, it can't possibly part of a cycle, but when the counter is decremented 1 or more, you never know. So the basics for the algorithm is to store cells which counters have been decremented to 1 or more, and then make a local (partial) mark and sweep to the cell accessible from it.

The trick is to use the reference counters. In the marking phase, the reference counters are decremented as the connectivity graph is traversed. When the marking phase is done, any cell with counter higher than zero is reference from outside the partial graph analyzed, so it must survive (as well as all the cells reachable from it).


The worst case for a partial scan, is to scan the whole heap. But this should be extremely rare.

There are a lot of flavors of this algorithm, but all are based on the same principle, and most of the could be suitable for D.

Backup tracing collector for rc cycles reclamation

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 09- 07 01:05 (updated on 2009- 04- 02 18:42)
tagged backup, cycles, d, dgc, en, rc, tracing - with 0 comment(s)

The simpler way to reclaim cycles is to use a backup tracing garbage collector. But this way, even when GC frequency could be much lower, the infomation of reference counters are not used, and pauses can be very long (depending on the backup algorithm used).

I think some kind of mixture between RC and tracing GC could be done so I wont discard this option just yet, but I think more specialized algorithms can do better in this case.

Discarded cycles reclamation algorithms

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 09- 07 00:50 (updated on 2008- 09- 07 00:50)
tagged bobrow, cycles, d, dgc, discarded, en, friedman, groups, rc, weak pointers, wise - with 0 comment(s)

Finally, we address the cyclic structures reclaimation when doing reference counting. But I think there are some algorithms that are clearly unsuitable for D.

All the manual techniques (manually avoiding or breaking cycles or using weak pointers) are unacceptable, because it throws the problem again to the programmer. So I will consider only the options that keep the memory management automatic.

There are several specific cycles reclamation algorithms for functional languages too (like Friedman and Wise), but of course they are unsuitable for D because of the asumptios they make.

Bobrow proposed a general technique, in which a cyclic structure is reference counted as a whole (instead of reference counting their individual cells) but I find this impractical for D too, because it needs programmer intervention (marking "group" of cells).

ZCT and cycles

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 30 13:08 (updated on 2008- 08- 30 13:08)
tagged bobrow, cycles, d, deferred, deutsch, dgc, en, rc, zct - with 0 comment(s)

There's not much to think about it (I think ;).

ZCT doesn't help in cycles reclaiming, because ZCT tracks cells with zero count, and cycles can't possibly have a zero count (even using deferred reference counting), because they are, by definition, inter-heap pointers.

Let's see a simple example:

Memory layout before a cycle is lost

First, we have 3 heap cells, A pointed only by the (thus with rc 0 and added to the ZCT) and B pointed by A and in a cycle with C.

If sometime later, A stop pointing to B, the cycle B-C is not pointed by anything (the ZCT can't do anything about it either), so we lost track of the cycle.

Memory layout after a cycle is lost

Does this mean that deferred reference counting is useless? I think not. It could still be useful to do some kind of incremental garbage collection, minimizing pauses for a lot of cases. As long as the ZCT reconciliation can find free cells, the pauses of GC would be as short as tracing only the stack, which I think it would be pretty short.

Mental note

See how often cycles are found in tipical D programs.

If the ZCT reconciliation can't find free cells, a full collection should be triggered, using a tracing collector to inspect both the stack and the heap. Alternatively, one can a potential cycle table to store cells which rc has been decremented to a value higher than zero, and then just trace those cells to look for cycles, but we will see this algorithm in more detail in the future.

Avoiding counter updates

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 25 00:44 (updated on 2008- 08- 25 00:44)
tagged bobrow, d, deferred, deutsch, dgc, en, rc - with 0 comment(s)

The main drawback of reference counting (leaving cycle aside) probably is high overhead it imposes into the client program. Every pointer update has to manipulate the reference counters, for both the old and the new objects.

Function calls

This includes every object passed as argument to a function, which one can guess it would be a lot (every method call for example). However, this kind of rc updates can be easily optimized away. Let's see an example:

class SomeClass
    void some_method() {}

void some_function(SomeClass o)

void main()
    auto o = new SomeClass;

It's clear that o should live until the end of main(), and that there is no chance o could be garbage collected until main() finishes. To express this, is enough to have o's rc = 1. There is no need to increment it when some_function() is called, nor when some_method() is called.

So, theoretically (I really didn't prove it =) is not necessary to update object's rc when used as arguments.

Local pointers update

What about pointers in the stack? Most of the time, pointers updates are done in local variables (pointers in the stack, not in the heap). The GC book talks about 99% of pointers update done in local variables for Lisp and ML. I don't think D could have that much but I guess it could be pretty high too.

Mental note

Gather some statistics about the number of local pointers update vs. heap pointers update in D

Fortunately Deutsch and Bobrow created an algorithm to completely ignore local pointers update, at the cost of relaying on some kind of tracing collector, but that only have to trace the stack (which should be pretty small compared to the heap).

What the algorithm proposes is to use simple assignment when updating local pointers. Pointers living in the heap manipulates rc as usual, but when the count drops to 0, the object is added to a zero count table (ZCT) (and removed if some pointer update increments the counter again).

Finally, at some point (usually when you run out of memory), the ZCT has to be reconciled, doing some simple steps: trace the stack looking for pointers and incrementing their counters and remove any object with rc = 0. Finally, decrement all the counters of the objects pointer to by the stack pointers.

This technique seems to be a good mix of both reference counting and tracing collectors: small pauses (the stack is usually small), low overhead for counter manipulation. The only missing point is cycles. At first sight, if we need a tracing collector for cycles, this algorithm seems pretty useless because you have to trace all the heap and stack to free cycles, so the optimization is lost. Big pauses are here again.

I have the feeling I'm missing something and the ZCT could be useful when comes to reclaim cycles, but I have to think a little more about that.

Lazy freeing RC

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 18 23:31 (updated on 2008- 08- 18 23:31)
tagged d, dgc, en, lazy, lazy freeing, rc - with 0 comment(s)

The first optimization to analyze is a very simple one. What's the idea behind it lazy freeing? Just transfer some of the work of freeing unused cells to the allocation, making the collection even more interleaved with the mutator.

When you delete a cell, if it's counter drops to 0, instead of recursively free it, just add it to a free-list. Then, when a new cell has to be allocated, take it from the free-list, delete all its children (using the lazy delete, of course), and return that cell.

First drawback of this method: you loose finalization support, but as I said, most people don't care about that. So that's a non-problem. Second, allocation is not that fast anymore. But it's almost bounded. Why almost? Because it's O(N), being N the number of pointers to be deleted in that cell. This doesn't seems like a huge cost anyways (just decrement a counter and, maybe, add it to a free-list). Allocation is (usually) not bounded anyways (except for compacting collectors).

The big win? Bounded freeing. Really small pauses, with no extra costs.


If you have a (simple) program that suffers from GC pauses that you think it could be easily converted to be reference counted (i.e. few pointer updates), please let me know if you want me to try to make it use lazy freeing RC to analyze the real impact on a real-life program.

Reference counting worth a try

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 18 20:30 (updated on 2008- 08- 18 23:19)
tagged d, dgc, en, intro, rc - with 0 comment(s)

Even when I said that reference counting (RC) will be hard in D, I think it worth a try because it's a really easy way to get incremental garbage collection; the collector activity is interleaved with the mutator. And besides it could be hard to add support to the compiler, it's doable by manually incrementing and decrementing the reference counters to evaluate it.

One of the biggest features of RC is its capability to identify garbage cells as soon as they become garbage (let cycles outside that statement =). The killer use for this is finalization support. Unfortunately this feature kills a lot of possible optimizations. On the other hand, D doesn't need finalization support very hard (with the scope statement and other possible RAII D techniques, I think nobody is missing it), so, lucky us, we can drop that feature and think about some optimizations.

RC can help too to all the fuzz about concurrency and sharing in D2 (it's trivial to know when an object is unshared), but that's a different story.


By the way, I don't think RC can make it on his own (yes, because of cycles), but I think it can help a lot to make collection incremental, leaving just a very small ammount of work to a tracing collector.

Basic algorithms summary

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 12 00:42 (updated on 2008- 08- 12 01:26)
tagged copying, d, dgc, en, intro, mark-compact, mark-sweep, moving, non-moving, rc, tracing - with 6 comment(s)

Let's make a little summary about the big categories of garbage collection algorithms:

Basic algorithms summary

The first branch is reference counting vs. tracing garbage collectors. For D, reference counting is a really complicated choice, because to be (seriously) considered, the compilar/language have to change pretty much. However, one can make some manual bookkeeping to evaluate if this method has considerable advantages over the other to see if that extra work worth the effort.

Tracing garbage collectors is the easy way to go in D. Tracing comes in two flavors: moving and non-moving. Again, moving is hard in D, because all sort of nasty stuff can be done, but a lot more doable than reference counting. In the non-moving field, the major option is the good ol' mark & sweep (the algorithm used by the actual D garbage collector).

Going back to the moving ones, there are two big groups: copying and mark-compact. I don't like copying too much because it need at least double the residency of a program (remember, we are trying not to waste memory =). Mark-compact have some of the advantages of copying without this requirement.


This is just one arbitrary categorization. There are a lot of other categories based on different topis, like: pauses (stop-the-world, incremental, concurrent, real-time), partitioning (generational, connectivity-based), pointer-awareness (precise, conservative) and probably a lot more that I don't even know.

Post your favorite paper!

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 11 15:55 (updated on 2008- 08- 11 22:28)
tagged d, dgc, en, papers, project, wiki - with 1 comment(s)

I've created a simple project. I've created a papers page there where you can upload or link papers you find interesting so I can evaluate them.

DGC begins

by Leandro Lucarella on 2008- 08- 10 18:59 (updated on 2008- 08- 11 00:13)
tagged d, dgc, en, intro, plan - with 2 comment(s)

Ok, here I am.

First of all, this is a blog. Second, this is a blog about my informatics engineering thesis, to finally finish my long long studies at FIUBA (Engineering Faculty of the Buenos Aires University, UBA): a wild try to improve the D Programming Language garbage collector.

But don't expect too much of this blog. It's just a public place where to write my mental notes (in my poor english), things I want to remember for some point in the future.

If you are still interested, here is my plan for the short term:

I'm reading (again) the bible of GC: Garbage Collection: Algorithms for Automatic Dynamic Memory Management by Rafael Lins (whom I had the pleasure to meet in person) and Richard Jones. I'll try to evaluate the posibility of using each and every technique in that book in the D GC, leaving here all my conclusions about it. What I really want in this first (serious) pass is, at least, to discard the algorithms that are clearly not suitable for D.